S8P1.e Develop models (e.g., atomic-level models, including drawings, and computer representations) by analyzing patterns within the periodic table that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms (protons, neutrons, and electrons) and simple molecules.
S8P2.c Construct an argument to support a claim about the type of energy transformations within a system [e.g., lighting a match (light to heat), turning on a light (electrical to light)].
S8P2.d Plan and carry out investigations on the effects of heat transfer on molecular motion as it relates to the collision of atoms (conduction), through space (radiation), or in currents in a liquid or a gas (convection).
S8P3 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about cause and effect relationships between force, mass, and the motion of objects.
S8P3.a Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns in the relationships between speed and distance, and velocity and acceleration.
S8P3.b Construct an explanation using Newton's Laws of Motion to describe the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.
S8P3.c Construct an argument from evidence to support the claim that the amount of force needed to accelerate an object is proportional to its mass (inertia).
S8P4 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that electromagnetic (light) waves behave differently than mechanical (sound) waves.
S8P4.a Ask questions to develop explanations about the similarities and differences between electromagnetic and mechanical waves.
S8P4.b Construct an explanation using data to illustrate the relationship between the electromagnetic spectrum and energy.
S8P4.c Design a device to illustrate practical applications of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., communication, medical, military).
S8P4.d Develop and use a model to compare and contrast how light and sound waves are reflected, refracted, absorbed, diffracted or transmitted through various materials.
S8P4.e Analyze and interpret data to predict patterns in the relationship between density of media and wave behavior (i.e., speed).
S8P4.f Develop and use a model (e.g., simulations, graphs, illustrations) to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, and wavelength) and energy.
S8P4.g Develop and use models to demonstrate the effects that lenses have on light (i.e., formation an image) and their possible technological applications.
S8P5 Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about gravity, electricity, and magnetism as major forces acting in nature.
S8P5.a Construct an argument using evidence to support the claim that fields (i.e., magnetic fields, gravitational fields, and electric fields) exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
S8P5.b Plan and carry out investigations to demonstrate the distribution of charge in conductors and insulators.
S8P5.c Plan and carry out investigations to identify the factors (e.g., distance between objects, magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core) that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.