Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.
8.NS.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.
8.NS.2 Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π²).
8.EE.1 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x² = p and x³ = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of whole number perfect squares with solutions between 0 and 15 and cube roots of whole number perfect cubes with solutions between 0 and 5. Know that √2 is irrational.
8.EE.3 Read and write numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.
8.EE.5 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope (m) is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane and extend to include the use of the slope formula (m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1) when given two coordinate points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)). Generate the equation y = mx for a line through the origin (proportional) and the equation y = mx + b for a line with slope m intercepting the vertical axis at y-intercept b (not proportional when b ≠ 0).
Analyze and solve linear equations and inequalities.
8.EE.7 Fluently (efficiently, accurately, and flexibly) solve one-step, two-step, and multi-step linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including situations with the same variable appearing on both sides of the equal sign.
8.EE.7a Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution (x = a), infinitely many solutions (a = a), or no solutions (a = b). Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a,ora = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
8.EE.7b Solve linear equations and inequalities with rational number coefficients, including equations/inequalities whose solutions require expanding and/or factoring expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.
8.F.1 Explain that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in Grade 8.)
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
8.F.4 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.
8.F.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
8.G.1 Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
8.G.1a An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a "one-degree angle," and can be used to measure angles.
8.G.3 Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.
8.G.5 Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles.
8.G.6 Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on drawing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.
8.G.12 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving arc length, area of two-dimensional shapes including sectors, volume and surface area of three-dimensional objects including pyramids, cones and spheres.
Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
8.SP.1 Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
8.SP.2 Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.