Use properties of rational numbers and irrational numbers.
N.RN.2 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents.
Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.
N.Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane.
N.CN.5 Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.
N.VM.1 Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v).
N.VM.4c Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise.
N.VM.5b Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using ||cv|| = |c|v. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when |c|v ≠ 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0).
N.VM.10 Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse.
A.APR.5 Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y) to the n power in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined for example by Pascal's Triangle. The Binomial Theorem can be proven by mathematical induction or by a combinatorial argument.
A.APR.6 Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system.
Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.
A.REI.1 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.
A.REI.9 Solve an equation f(x) = g(x) by graphing y = f(x) and y = g(x) and finding the x-value of the intersection point. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.
Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.
F.IF.1 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.
F.IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of expressions, graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.
F.BF.3 Transform parent functions (f(x)) by replacing f(x) with f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.
F.TF.2 Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle.
F.TF.3 Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4, and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for π – x, π + x, and 2π – x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number.
G.C.6 Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.
G.GPE.5 Derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant; graph the ellipse or hyperbola in the coordinate plane.
Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.
G.GMD.1 Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use dissection arguments and informal limit arguments.
G.GMD.2 Give an informal argument using Cavalieri's principle for the formulas for the volume of a solid figure.
S Statistics and Probability
S.ID Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data
Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable.
S.ID.3 Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.
S.CP Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability
Understand independent and conditional probability and use them to interpret data.
S.CP.1 Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events ("or," "and," "not").
S.CP.2 Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.
S.CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(AandB)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.
S.CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.
Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems.
S.MD.1 Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions.