2.T1.1 Explain the kinds of information provided by components of a map (e.g., compass rose/cardinal directions, scale, key/legend, title) and give examples of how maps can show relationships between humans and the environment (e.g., travel, roads, natural resources, agriculture, mining).
2.T1.2 Compare different kinds of map projections (e.g., Mercator, Peters) and explain how they represent the world differently.
2.T1.3 Construct a map of a familiar location (e.g., the school, the neighborhood, a park).
2.T2 Geography and its effects on people
2.T2.1 On a map of the world and on a globe, locate all the continents and some major physical characteristics on each continent (e.g., lakes, seas, bays, rivers and tributaries, mountains and mountain ranges, and peninsulas, deserts, plains).
2.T2.3 Explain how the location of landforms and bodies of water helps determine conditions (i.e., climate, weather, vegetation) for habitable living.
2.T2.4 Explain and describe human interaction with the physical world (the environment).
2.T3 History: migrations and cultures
2.T3.1 Investigate reasons why people migrate (move) to different places around the world, recognizing that some migration is voluntary, some forced (e.g., refugees, people driven from their homelands, enslaved people).
2.T3.2 Give examples of why the United States is called "a nation of immigrants."
2.T3.3 Conduct interviews with family members, neighbors, friends, or school staff to discover where their families came from, how and why they moved to where they now live, and when and why their families came to Massachusetts.
2.T3.4 Identify what individuals and families bring with them (e.g., memories, cultural traits, goods, ideas, and languages or ways of speaking) when they move to a different place and identify the significant impacts of migration; identify elements that define the culture of a society (e.g., language, literature, arts, religion, traditions, customs); explain how the community is enriched by contributions from all the people who form it today.
2.T4.3 Locate and analyze information and present a short research report on the physical features, resources, and people of a country outside the United States.
2.T5 Economics: resources and choices
2.T5.1 Explain the relationship between natural resources and industries and jobs in a particular location (e.g., fishing, shipbuilding, farming, trading, mining, lumbering, manufacturing).
2.T5.2 Distinguish a renewable resource from a non-renewable resource.
2.T5.3 Explain that people are a resource too, and that the knowledge and skills they gain through school, college, and work make possible innovations and technological advancements that lead to an ever-growing share of goods and services.
2.T5.4 Explain what it means to be employed and define the terms income, wages, and salary.
Buying Goods and Services
2.T5.5 Give examples of products (goods) that people buy and use.
2.T5.7 Give examples of choices people have to make about buying goods and services (e.g., food for the family or a video game; bus fare to get to work or a movie ticket for entertainment) and why they have to make choices (e.g., because they have only enough money for one purchase, not two).
2.T5.8 Analyze examples of voluntary choices people make about buying goods and services (e.g., to buy from a company that supports its workers or protects the environment).
2.T5.9 Compare and contrast reasons why people save some of their money (e.g., deciding to put some of it aside for later for a future purchase, for a charitable donation or for an emergency).