E the growth and development of the English and French nations
WHI.8 Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance in the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures, including the Magna Carta, parliament, and habeas corpus.
The Encounters Between Christianity and Islam to 1500
WHI.9 Describe the religious and political origins of conflicts between Islam and Christianity, including the Muslim wars against Christianity before the European Crusades and the causes, course, and consequences of the European Crusades against Islam in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
WHI.13 Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe their political structures, religious practices, economies, art and architecture, and use of slaves.
WHI.20 Describe the development and effects of the trans-African slave trade to the Middle East from the 8th century on, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the Western Hemisphere from the 16th century on.
WHI.26 Describe Japan's cultural and economic relationship to China and Korea.
WH.27 Describe the influence and consequences of Japanese isolationism to 1800.
WH.28 Explain how Korea has been both a battleground and a cultural bridge between China and Japan.
Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe
WHI.29 Describe the origins and development of the Renaissance, including the influence and accomplishments of Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Johannes Gutenberg.
WHI.32 Explain the role of religion in the wars between European nations in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe
WHI.33 Summarize how the Scientific Revolution and the scientific method led to new theories of the universe and describe the accomplishments of leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Bacon, Copernicus, Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.
WHI.34 Describe the concept of Enlightenment in European history and describe the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Diderot, Kant, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire.
WHI.35 Explain how the Enlightenment contributed to the growth of democratic principles of government, a stress on reason and progress, and the replacement of a theocentric interpretation of the universe with a secular interpretation.
The Growth and Decline of Islamic Empires
WHI.36 Describe the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries into North Africa, Eastern Europe, and throughout the Middle East.
WHI.37 Describe the expansion of Islam into India from the 13th through the 17th century, the role of the Mongols, the rise and fall of the Moghul Empire, and the relationship between Muslims and Hindus.
WHI.38 Account for the declining strength of the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 17th century, including the failed siege of Vienna in 1683 and the rapid pace of modernization in European economic, political, religious, scientific, and intellectual life resulting from the ideas embedded in the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution.