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Skills available for Massachusetts eighth-grade social studies standards

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The Emergence and Expansion of Islam to 1500

The Medieval Period in Europe to 1500

  • WHI.6 Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire.

    • A the influence of Constantine, including the establishment of Christianity as an officially sanctioned religion.

    • B the importance of Justinian and the Code of Justinian

    • C the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions

    • D the construction of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia).

  • WHI.7 Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe.

    • A the growing influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church

    • B the differing orders of medieval society, the development of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of western civilization

    • C the initial emergence of a modern economy, including the growth of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, and a merchant class

    • D the economic and social effects of the spread of the Black Death or Bubonic Plague

    • E the growth and development of the English and French nations

  • WHI.8 Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance in the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures, including the Magna Carta, parliament, and habeas corpus.

The Encounters Between Christianity and Islam to 1500

  • WHI.9 Describe the religious and political origins of conflicts between Islam and Christianity, including the Muslim wars against Christianity before the European Crusades and the causes, course, and consequences of the European Crusades against Islam in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.

  • WHI.10 Describe the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries, including the capture of Constantinople in 1453.

  • WHI.11 Describe the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms after the Reconquest in 1492.

The Origins of European Western Expansion and the Civilizations of Central and South America

African History to 1800

Indian History to 1800

  • WHI.21 Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800.

    • A the origins of Indian civilization in the Indus Valley

    • B the evolution and central principles of Hinduism

    • C the development of the caste system

    • D the influence of Islam and the rise and fall of the Moghul empire

    • E artistic and intellectual achievements, including the development of a decimal system

  • WHI.22 Describe the growth of British influence in India and the emergence of the British Raj.

History of China, Japan, and Korea to 1800

  • WHI.23 Summarize the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese civilization through the 19th century.

  • WHI.24 Describe the growth of commerce and towns in China and the importance of agriculture to the development of the Chinese economy to 1800, including the limited role of slavery.

  • WHI.25 Summarize the major economic, political, and religious developments in Japanese history to 1800.

    • A the evolution of Shinto and Japanese Buddhism

    • B the development of feudalism

    • C the rise of the Shoguns and the role of the samurai

  • WHI.26 Describe Japan's cultural and economic relationship to China and Korea.

  • WH.27 Describe the influence and consequences of Japanese isolationism to 1800.

  • WH.28 Explain how Korea has been both a battleground and a cultural bridge between China and Japan.

Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe

  • WHI.29 Describe the origins and development of the Renaissance, including the influence and accomplishments of Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Johannes Gutenberg.

  • WHI.30 Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation.

    • A the reasons for the growing discontent with the Catholic Church, including the main ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin

    • B the spread of Protestantism across Europe, including the reasons and consequences of England's break with the Catholic Church

    • C the weakening of a uniform Christian faith

    • D the consolidation of royal power

  • WHI.31 Explain the purposes and policies of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, including the influence and ideas of Ignatius Loyola.

  • WHI.32 Explain the role of religion in the wars between European nations in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in Europe

  • WHI.33 Summarize how the Scientific Revolution and the scientific method led to new theories of the universe and describe the accomplishments of leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Bacon, Copernicus, Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.

  • WHI.34 Describe the concept of Enlightenment in European history and describe the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Diderot, Kant, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire.

  • WHI.35 Explain how the Enlightenment contributed to the growth of democratic principles of government, a stress on reason and progress, and the replacement of a theocentric interpretation of the universe with a secular interpretation.

The Growth and Decline of Islamic Empires

  • WHI.36 Describe the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries into North Africa, Eastern Europe, and throughout the Middle East.

  • WHI.37 Describe the expansion of Islam into India from the 13th through the 17th century, the role of the Mongols, the rise and fall of the Moghul Empire, and the relationship between Muslims and Hindus.

  • WHI.38 Account for the declining strength of the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 17th century, including the failed siege of Vienna in 1683 and the rapid pace of modernization in European economic, political, religious, scientific, and intellectual life resulting from the ideas embedded in the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution.