Pre-Columbian Civilizations of the New World and European Exploration, Colonization, and Settlement to 1700
5.1 Describe the earliest explorations of the New World by the Vikings, the period and locations of their explorations, and the evidence for them.
5.2 Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe their political structures, religious practices, and use of slaves.
5.3 Explain why trade routes to Asia had been closed in the 15th century and trace the voyages of at least four of the explorers listed below. Describe what each explorer sought when he began his journey, what he found, and how his discoveries changed the image of the world, especially the maps used by explorers.
5.5 Describe the goals and extent of the Dutch settlement in New York, the French settlements in Canada, and the Spanish settlements in Florida, the Southwest, and California.
5.6 Explain the early relationship of the English settlers to the indigenous peoples, or Indians, in North America, including the differing views on ownership or use of land and the conflicts between them (e.g., the Pequot and King Philip's Wars in New England).
5.8 Identify the links between the political principles and practices developed in ancient Greece and such political institutions and practices as written constitutions and town meetings of the Puritans.
5.9 Explain the reasons why the language, political institutions, and political principles of what became the United States of America were largely shaped by English colonists even though other major European nations also explored the New World.
A the relatively small number of colonists who came from other nations besides England
B long experience with self-government
C the high rates of literacy and education among the English colonial leaders
D England's strong economic, intellectual, and military position
The Political, Intellectual, and Economic Growth of the Colonies, 1700-1775
5.10 On a map of North America, identify the first 13 colonies and describe how regional differences in climate, types of farming, populations, and sources of labor shaped their economies and societies through the 18th century.
C the port cities of New Bedford, Newburyport, Gloucester, Salem, and Boston
5.12 Explain the causes of the establishment of slavery in North America. Describe the harsh conditions of the Middle Passage and slave life, and the responses of slaves to their condition. Describe the life of free African Americans in the colonies.
5.19 Identify the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, including its date, its primary author (John Adams), and the basic rights it gives to citizens of the Commonwealth.
5.20 Explain the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in 1781 and for its later failure.
5.21 Describe Shays' Rebellion of 1786-1787 and explain why it was one of the crucial events leading to the Constitutional Convention.
5.22 Identify the various leaders of the Constitutional Convention and describe the major issues they debated.
A distribution of political power
B rights of individuals
C rights of states
D the Great Compromise
The Principles and Institutions of American Constitutional Government
5.23 Describe the responsibilities of government at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., protection of individual rights and the provision of services such as law enforcement and the building and funding of schools).
5.25 Identify the three branches of the United States government as outlined by the Constitution, describe their functions and relationships, and identify what features of the Constitution were unique at the time (e.g., the presidency and the independent judiciary).
5.27 Explain how American citizens were expected to participate in, monitor, and bring about changes in their government over time, and give examples of how they continue to do so today.
The Growth of the Republic
5.28 Identify the changes in voting qualifications between 1787 and 1820 (e.g., the abolition of property requirements), and compare who could vote in local, state, and national elections in the U.S. with who could vote in England, France, and Russia.
5.29 Explain the events leading up to, and the significance of, the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
5.31 Describe the significance and consequences of the abolition of slavery in the northern states after the Revolution and of the 1808 law that banned the importation of slaves into the United States.