U1.1 Describe the life of peoples living in North America before European exploration.
5 - U1.1.1 Use maps to locate peoples in the desert Southwest, the Pacific Northwest, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi River (Eastern Woodland).
5 - U1.1.2 Compare how American Indians in the desert Southwest and the Pacific Northwest adapted to or modified the environment.
5 - U1.1.3 Describe Eastern Woodland American Indian life with respect to governmental and family structures, trade, and views on property ownership and land use.
U1.2 Identify the causes and consequences of European exploration and colonization.
5 - U1.2.1 Explain the technological (e.g., invention of the astrolabe and improved maps), and political developments, (e.g., rise of nation-states), that made sea exploration possible.
5 - U1.2.2 Use case studies of individual explorers and stories of life in Europe to compare the goals, obstacles, motivations, and consequences for European exploration and colonization of the Americas (e.g., economic, political, cultural, and religious).
U1.3 Describe the lives of peoples living in western Africa prior to the 16th century.
5 - U1.3.1 Use maps to locate the major regions of Africa (northern Africa, western Africa, central Africa, eastern Africa, southern Africa).
5 - U1.3.2 Describe the life and cultural development of people living in western Africa before the 16th century with respect to economic (the ways people made a living) and family structures, and the growth of states, towns, and trade.
U1.4 Describe the environmental, political, and cultural consequences of the interactions among European, African, and American Indian peoples in the late 15th through the 17th century.
5 - U1.4.1 Describe the convergence of Europeans, American Indians and Africans in North America after 1492 from the perspective of these three groups.
5 - U1.4.2 Use primary and secondary sources (e.g., letters, diaries, maps, documents, narratives, pictures, graphic data) to compare Europeans and American Indians who converged in the western hemisphere after 1492 with respect to governmental structure, and views on property ownership and land use.
5 - U1.4.3 Explain the impact of European contact on American Indian cultures by comparing the different approaches used by the British and French in their interactions with American Indians.
5 - U1.4.4 Describe the Columbian Exchange and its impact on Europeans, American Indians, and Africans.
5 - U2.2.3 Describe how Africans living in North America drew upon their African past (e.g., sense of family, role of oral tradition) and adapted elements of new cultures to develop a distinct African-American culture.
U2.3 Distinguish among and explain the reasons for regional differences in colonial America.
5 - U2.3.1 Locate the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies on a map.
5 - U2.3.3 Describe colonial life in America from the perspectives of at least three different groups of people (e.g., wealthy landowners, farmers, merchants, indentured servants, laborers and the poor, women, enslaved people, free Africans, and American Indians).
5 - U3.1.3 Using an event from the Revolutionary era (e.g., Boston Tea Party, quartering of soldiers, writs of assistance, closing of colonial legislatures), explain how British and colonial views on authority and the use of power without authority differed (views on representative government).
5 - U3.1.6 Identify the role that key individuals played in leading the colonists to revolution, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, John Adams, and Thomas Paine.
5 - U3.1.7 Describe how colonial experiences with self-government (e.g., Mayflower Compact, House of Burgesses and town meetings) and ideas about government (e.g., purposes of government such as protecting individual rights and promoting the common good, natural rights, limited government, representative government) influenced the decision to declare independence.
U3.3 Explain some of the challenges faced by the new nation under the Articles of Confederation, and analyze the development of the Constitution as a new plan for governing.
5 - U3.3.1 Describe the powers of the national government and state governments under the Articles of Confederation.
5 - U3.3.2 Give examples of problems the country faced under the Articles of Confederation (e.g., lack of national army, competing currencies, reliance on state governments for money).
5 - U3.3.3 Explain why the Constitutional Convention was convened and why the Constitution was written.
5 - U3.3.4 Describe the issues over representation and slavery the Framers faced at the Constitutional Convention and how they were addressed in the Constitution (Great Compromise, Three- Fifths Compromise).