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Skills available for Missouri second-grade science standards

Standards are in black and IXL science skills are in dark green. Hold your mouse over the name of a skill to view a sample question. Click on the name of a skill to practice that skill.

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1 Properties and Principles of Matter and Energy

  • 1 Changes in properties and states of matter provide evidence of the atomic theory of matter

    • A Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them

    • B Properties of mixtures depend upon the concentrations, properties, and interactions of particles

      • a Observe and describe how mixtures are made by combining solids

      • b Describe ways to separate the components of a mixture by their physical properties (e.g., sorting, magnets, screening)

    • C Properties of matter can be explained in terms of moving particles too small to be seen without tremendous magnification

    • D Physical changes in the state of matter that result from thermal changes can be explained by the Kinetic Theory of Matter

    • E The atomic model describes the electrically neutral atom

    • F The periodic table organizes the elements according to their atomic structure and chemical reactivity

    • G Properties of objects and states of matter can change chemically and/or physically

    • H Chemical bonding is the combining of different pure substances (elements, compounds) to form new substances with different properties

    • I Mass is conserved during any physical or chemical change

  • 2 Energy has a source, can be stored, and can be transferred but is conserved within a system

    • A Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver

      • a Identify air, water, and solids as mediums that sound travels through

      • b Describe different ways to change the pitch of a sound (i.e., changes in size, such as length or thickness, and in tightness/tension of the source)

      • c Describe how the ear serves as a receiver of sound (i.e., sound vibrates eardrum)

      • d Describe how to change the loudness of a sound (i.e., increase or decrease the force causing vibrations)

    • B Mechanical energy comes from the motion (kinetic energy) and/or relative position (potential energy) of an object

    • C Electromagnetic energy from the Sun (solar radiation) is a major source of energy on Earth

    • D Chemical reactions involve changes in the bonding of atoms with the release or absorption of energy

    • E Nuclear energy is a major source of energy throughout the universe

    • F Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)

2 Properties and Principles of Force and Motion

  • 1 The motion of an object is described by its change in position relative to another object or point

    • A The motion of an object is described as a change in position, direction, and speed relative to another object (frame of reference)

    • B An object that is accelerating is speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction

      • a Describe Earth's gravity as a force that pulls objects on or near the Earth toward the Earth without touching the object

    • C Magnetic forces are related to electrical forces as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force

  • 2 Forces affect motion

    • A Forces are classified as either contact (pushes, pulls, friction, buoyancy) or non-contact forces (gravity, magnetism), that can be described in terms of direction and magnitude

      • a Identify magnets attract and repel each other and certain materials

      • b Describe magnetism as a force that can push or pull other objects without touching them

      • c Measure (using non-standard units) and compare the force (i.e., push or pull) required to overcome friction and move an object over different surfaces (i.e., rough, smooth)

    • B Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object

      • a Describe Earth's gravity as a force that pulls objects on or near the Earth toward the Earth without touching the object

    • C Magnetic forces are related to electrical forces as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force

    • D Newton's Laws of Motion explain the interaction of mass and forces, and are used to predict changes in motion

      • a Describe the direction and amount of force (i.e., direction of push or pull, strong/weak push or pull) needed to change an object's motion (i.e., faster/slower, change in direction)

      • b Describe and compare the distances traveled by heavier/lighter objects after applying the same amount of force (i.e., push or pull) in the same direction

      • c Describe and compare the distances traveled by objects with the same mass after applying different amounts of force (i.e., push or pull) in the same direction

    • E Perpendicular forces act independently of each other

    • F Work transfers energy into and out of a mechanical system

      • a Compare and describe the amount of force (i.e., more, less, or same push or pull) needed to raise an object to a given height, with or without using inclined planes (ramps) of different slopes

      • b Compare and describe the amount of force (i.e., more, less, or same push or pull) needed to raise an object to a given height, with or without using levers

      • c Apply the use of an inclined plane (ramp) and/or lever to different real life situations in which objects are raised

3 Characteristics and Interactions of Living Organisms

  • 1 There is a fundamental unity underlying the diversity of all living organisms

    • A Organisms have basic needs for survival

    • B Organisms progress through life cycles unique to different types of organisms

    • C Cells are the fundamental units of structure and function of all living things

    • D Plants and animals have different structures that serve similar functions necessary for the survival of the organism

    • E Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related

  • 2 Living organisms carry out life processes in order to survive

    • A The cell contains a set of structures called organelles that interact to carry out life processes through physical and chemical means

    • B All living organisms have genetic material (DNA) that carries hereditary information

    • C Complex multicellular organisms have systems that interact to carry out life processes through physical and chemical means

    • D Cells carry out chemical transformations that use energy for the synthesis or breakdown of organic compounds

    • E Protein structure and function are coded by the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule

    • F Cellular activities and responses can maintain stability internally while external conditions are changing (homeostasis)

    • G Life processes can be disrupted by disease (intrinsic failures of the organ systems or by infection due to other organisms)

  • 3 There is a genetic basis for the transfer of biological characteristics from one generation to the next through productive processes

    • A Reproduction can occur asexually or sexually

    • B All living organisms have genetic material (DNA) that carries hereditary information

    • C Chromosomes are components of cells that occur in pairs and carry hereditary information from one cell to daughter cells and from parent to offspring during reproduction

    • D There is heritable variation within every species of organism

    • E The pattern of inheritance for many traits can be predicted by using the principles of Mendelian genetics

4 Changes in Ecosystems and Interactions of Organisms with their Environments

  • 1 Organisms are interdependent with one another and with their environment

    • A All populations living together within a community interact with one another and with their environment in order to survive and maintain a balanced ecosystem

    • B Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite

    • C All organisms, including humans, and their activities cause changes in their environment that affect the ecosystem

    • D The diversity of species within an ecosystem is affected by changes in the environment, which can be caused by other organisms or outside processes

  • 2 Matter and energy flow through an ecosystem

    • A As energy flows through the ecosystem, all organisms capture a portion of that energy and transform it to a form they can use

    • B Matter is recycled through an ecosystem

  • 3 Genetic variation sorted by the natural selection process explains evidence of biological evolution

    • A Evidence for the nature and rates of evolution can be found in anatomical and molecular characteristics of organisms and in the fossil record

    • B Reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species

    • C Natural selection is the process of sorting individuals based on their ability to survive and reproduce within their ecosystem

5 Processes and Interactions of the Earth's Systems

  • 1 Earth's systems (geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) have common components and unique structures

    • A The Earth's crust is composed of various materials, including soil, minerals, and rocks, with characteristic properties

      • a Observe and describe the physical properties (e.g., odor, color, appearance, relative grain size, texture, absorption of water) and different components (i.e., sand, clay, humus) of soils

      • b Observe and describe the physical properties of rocks (e.g., size, shape, color, presence of fossils)

    • B The hydrosphere is composed of water (a material with unique properties) and other materials

    • C The atmosphere (air) is composed of a mixture of gases, including water vapor, and minute particles

    • D Climate is a description of average weather conditions in a given area over time

  • 2 Earth's systems (geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) interact with one another as they undergo change by common processes

    • A The Earth's materials and surface features are changed through a variety of external processes

    • B There are internal processes and sources of energy within the geosphere that cause changes in Earth's crustal plates

    • C Continual changes in Earth's materials and surface that result from internal and external processes are described by the rock cycle

    • D Changes in the Earth over time can be inferred through rock and fossil evidence

    • E Changes in the form of water as it moves through Earth's systems are described as the water cycle

    • F Climate is a description of average weather conditions in a given area due to the transfer of energy and matter through Earth's systems

  • 3 Human activity is dependent upon and affects Earth's resources and systems

    • A Earth's materials are limited natural resource's affected by human activity

      • a Observe and describe ways humans use Earth's materials (e.g., soil, rocks) in a daily life

6 Composition and Structure of the Universe and the Motion of the Objects Within It

  • 1 The universe has observable properties and structure

    • A The Earth, Sun, and Moon are part of a larger system that includes other planets and smaller celestial bodies

    • B The Earth has a composition and location suitable to sustain life

    • C Most of the information we know about the universe comes from the electromagnetic spectrum

  • 2 Regular and predictable motions of objects in the universe can be described and explained as the result of gravitational forces

    • A The apparent position of the Sun and other stars, as seen from Earth, change in observable patterns

    • B The apparent position of the moon, as seen from Earth, and its actual position relative to Earth change in observable patterns

    • C The regular and predictable motions of the Earth and Moon relative to the Sun explain natural phenomena on Earth, such as day, month, year, shadows, moon phases, eclipses, tides, and seasons

    • D Gravity is a force of attraction between objects in the solar system that governs their motion

7 Scientific Inquiry

8 Impact of Science, Technology and Human Activity

  • 1 The nature of technology can advance, and is advanced by, science as it seeks to apply scientific knowledge in ways that meet human needs

    • A Designed objects are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all

      • a Design and construct a musical instrument using materials (e.g., cardboard, wood, plastic, metal) and/or existing objects (e.g., toy wheels, gears, boxes, sticks) that can be used to perform a task

    • B Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information

      • a Describe how tools have helped scientists make better observations, measurements, or equipment for investigations (e.g., magnifiers, balances, stethoscopes, thermometers)

    • C Technological solutions to problems often have drawbacks as well as benefits

  • 2 Historical and cultural perspectives of scientific explanations help to improve understanding of the nature of science and how science knowledge and technology evolve over time

    • A People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations

    • B Scientific theories are developed based on the body of knowledge that exists at any particular time and must be rigorously questioned and tested for validity

  • 3 Science and technology affect, and are affected by, society

    • A People, alone or in groups, are always making discoveries about nature and inventing new ways to solve problems and get work done

      • a Identify a question that was asked, or could be asked, or a problem that needed to be solved when given a brief scenario (fiction or nonfiction of individuals solving everyday problems or learning through discovery)

      • b Work with a group to solve a problem, giving due credit to the ideas and contributions of each group member

    • B Social, political, economic, ethical and environmental factors strongly influence, and are influenced by, the direction of progress of science and technology

    • C Scientific ethics require that scientists must not knowingly subject people or the community to health or property risks without their knowledge and consent

    • D Scientific information is presented through a number of credible sources, but is at times influenced in such a way to become non-credible