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Skills available for New Jersey eighth-grade social studies standards

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6.1.8 U.S. History: America in the World by the End of Grade 8

6.2.8 World History / Global Studies by the end of Grade 8

  • Era 1. The Beginnings of Human Society

    • 6.2.8.GeoPP.1.a Compare and contrast the social organization, natural resources, and land use of early hunters/gatherers and those who lived in early agrarian societies.

    • 6.2.8.GeoPP.1.b Use maps to examine the impact of the various migratory patterns of hunters/gatherers that moved from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.1.a Describe the influence of the agricultural revolution on population growth and the subsequent development of civilizations (e.g., the impact of food surplus from farming).

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.1.b Determine the impact of technological advancements on hunter/gatherer and agrarian societies.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.1.c Describe how the development of both written and unwritten languages impacted human understanding, development of culture, and social structure.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.1.d Demonstrate an understanding of pre-agricultural and post-agricultural periods in terms of relative length of time.

    • 6.2.8.HistorySE.1.a Explain how archaeological discoveries are used to develop and enhance understanding of life prior to written records.

  • Era 2. Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples: Early River Valley Civilizations (4000–1000 BCE)

    • 6.2.8.CivicsPI.2.a Explain how/why different early river valley civilizations developed similar forms of government and legal structures.

    • 6.2.8.CivicsHR.2.a Determine the role of slavery in the economic and social structures of early river valley civilizations.

    • 6.2.8.GeoSV.2.a Compare and contrast physical and political maps of early river valley civilizations and their modern counterparts and determine the geopolitical impact of these civilizations, then and now (i.e., Mesopotamia and Iraq; Ancient Egypt and Modern Egypt; Indus River Valley and Modern Pakistan/India; Ancient China and Modern China).

    • 6.2.8.GeoHE.2.a Determine the extent to which geography influenced settlement, the development of trade networks, technological innovations, and the sustainability of early river valley civilizations.

    • 6.2.8.GeoGE.2.a Explain how technological advancements led to greater economic specialization, improved weaponry, trade, and the development of a class system in early river valley civilizations.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.2.a Evaluate the importance and enduring legacy of the major achievements of the early river valley civilizations over time.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.2.b Analyze the impact of religion on daily life, government, and culture in various early river valley civilizations.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.2.c Explain how the development of written language transformed all aspects of life in early river valley civilizations.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCA.2.a Analyze the factors that led to the rise and fall of various early river valley civilizations and determine whether there was a common pattern of growth and decline.

  • Era 3. The Classical Civilizations of the Mediterranean World, India, and China (1000 BCE–600 CE)

    • 6.2.8.CivicsPI.3.a Compare and contrast the methods (i.e., autocratic rule, philosophies, and bureaucratic structures) used by the rulers of Rome, China, and India to control and unify their expanding empires.

    • 6.2.8.CivicsDP.3.a Compare and contrast the American legal system with the legal systems of classical civilizations and determine the extent to which these early systems influenced our current legal system (e.g., Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, Roman Justinian Code, Israelite Jewish Law).

    • 6.2.8.CivicsDP.3.b Use evidence to describe the impact of Athenian democracy and the Roman Republic on the development of the United State Constitution.

    • 6.2.8.CivicsHR.3.a Compare and contrast the rights and responsibilities of free men, women, slaves, and foreigners in the political, economic, and social structures of classical civilizations.

    • 6.2.8.GeoPP.3.a Use geographic models to describe how the availability of natural resources influenced the development of the political, economic, and cultural systems of each of the classical civilizations and provided motivation for expansion.

    • 6.2.8.GeoPP.3.b Explain how geography and the availability of natural resources led to both the development of classical civilizations and to their decline.

    • 6.2.8.EconEM.3.a Analyze the impact of expanding land and sea trade routes as well as a uniform system of exchange in the Mediterranean World and Asia.

    • 6.2.8.EconGE.3.a Explain how classical civilizations used technology and innovation to enhance agricultural/ manufacturing output and commerce, to expand military capabilities, to improve life in urban areas, and to allow for greater division of labor.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.3.a Determine the extent to which religion, economic issues, and conflict shaped the values and decisions of the classical civilizations.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryUP.3.a Compare and contrast social hierarchies in classical civilizations as they relate to power, wealth, and equality.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryUP.3.b Compare the status of groups in the Ancient World to those of people today and evaluate how individuals perceived the principles of liberty and equality then and now (i.e., political, economic, and social).

    • 6.2.8.HistoryUP.3.c Compare and contrast the tenets of various world religions that developed in or around this time period (i.e., Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism, and Taoism), their patterns of expansion, and their responses to the current challenges of globalization.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCA.3.a Evaluate the importance and enduring legacy of the major achievements of Greece, Rome, India, and China over time.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCA.3.b Determine common factors that contributed to the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, Gupta India, and Han China.

  • Era 4. Expanding Exchanges and Encounters (500 CE–1450 CE)

    • 6.2.8.CivicsPI.4.a Analyze the role of religion and other means rulers used to unify and centrally govern expanding territories with diverse populations.

    • 6.2.8.CivicsDP.4.a Cite evidence of the influence of medieval English legal and constitutional practices on modern democratic thought and institutions (i.e., the Magna Carta, parliament, the development of habeas corpus, and an independent judiciary).

    • 6.2.8.GeoHE.4.a Explain how geography influenced the development of the political, economic, and cultural centers of each empire as well as the empires’ relationships with other parts of the world.

    • 6.2.8.GeoHE.4.b Use geographic models to determine the impact of environmental modifications made by earlier civilizations on the current day environmental challenges.

    • 6.2.8.GeoHE.4.c Explain how the geographies and climates of Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas influenced their economic development and interaction or isolation with other societies.

    • 6.2.8.GeoHP.4.a Explain why the Arabian Peninsula’s physical features and location made it the epicenter of Afro-Eurasian trade and fostered the spread of Islam into Africa, Europe, and Asia.

    • 6.2.8.GeoHP.4.b Assess how maritime and overland trade routes impacted urbanization, transportation, communication, and the development of international trade centers (i.e., the African caravan and Silk Road).

    • 6.2.8.GeoHP.4.c Use maps to show how the interaction between the Islamic world and medieval Europe increased trade, enhanced technology innovation and impacted science, thought, and the arts.

    • 6.2.8.GeoGI.4.a Determine how Africa’s physical geography and natural resources presented challenges and opportunities for trade, development, and the spread of religion.

    • 6.2.8.GeoSV.4.a Analyze the immediate and long-term impact on China and Europe of the open exchange between Europe and the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty.

    • 6.2.8.EconNE.4.a Compare and contrast the Japanese and European systems of feudalism and the effectiveness of each in promoting social, economic, and political order.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.4.a Determine which events led to the rise and eventual decline of European feudalism.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.4.b Explain how and why the interrelationships among improved agricultural production, population growth, urbanization, and commercialization led to the rise of powerful states and kingdoms (i.e., Europe, Asia, Americas).

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.4.c Assess the demographic, economic, and religious impact of the plague on Europe.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.4.d Analyze the causes and outcomes of the Crusades from different perspectives, including the perspectives of European political and religious leaders, the crusaders, Jews, Muslims, and traders.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.4.e Determine the extent to which the Byzantine Empire influenced the Islamic world and western Europe.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.4.f Analyze the role of religion and economics in shaping each empire’s social hierarchy and evaluate the impact these hierarchical structures had on the lives of various groups of people.

    • 6.2.8.HistoryCC.4.g Evaluate the importance and enduring legacy of the major achievements of the people living Asia, Africa (Islam), Europe and the Americas over time.

6.3.8 Active Citizenship in the 21st Century by the End of Grade 8

  • 6.3.8.CivicsPI Civics, Government, and Human Rights: Civic and Political Institutions

    • 6.3.8.CivicsPI.1 Evaluate, take, and defend a position on why government is necessary, and the purposes government should serve.

    • 6.3.8.CivicsPI.2 Evaluate the extent to which different forms of government reflect the history and values of various societies (e.g., monarchy, democracy, republic, dictatorship).

    • 6.3.8.CivicsPI.3 Use a variety of sources from multiple perspectives to examine the role of individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media in a local or global issue and share this information with a governmental or nongovernmental organization as a way to gain support for addressing the issue.

    • 6.3.8.CivicsPI.4 Investigate the roles of political, civil, and economic organizations in shaping people’s lives and share this information with individuals who might benefit from this information.

  • 6.3.8.CivicsPD Civics, Government, and Human Rights: Participation and Deliberation

    • 6.3.8.CivicsPD.1 Deliberate on a public issue affecting an upcoming election, consider opposing arguments, and develop a reasoned conclusion.

    • 6.3.8.CivicsPD.2 Propose and defend a position regarding a public policy issue at the appropriate local, state, or national level.

    • 6.3.8.CivicsPD.3 Construct a claim as to why it is important for democracy that individuals are informed by facts, aware of diverse viewpoints, and willing to take action on public issues.

  • 6.3.8.CivicsDP Civics, Government, and Human Rights: Democratic Principles

    • 6.3.8.CivicsDP.1 Identify an issue of inequality, develop multiple solutions, and communicate the best one to an appropriate government body.

    • 6.3.8.CivicsDP.2 Make a claim based on evidence to determine the extent and the limitations of First Amendment rights (e.g., U.S. Supreme Court decisions).

    • 6.3.8.CivicsDP.3 Use historical case studies and current events to explain why due process is essential for the protection of individual rights and maintenance of limited government.

  • 6.3.8.CivicsPR Civics, Government, and Human Rights: Processes, Rules and Laws

  • 6.3.8.CivicsHR Civics, Government, and Human Rights: Human and Civil Rights

    • 6.3.8.CivicsHR.1 Construct an argument as to the source of human rights and how they are best protected.

  • 6.3.8.EconET Economics, Innovation, and Technology: Economic Ways of Thinking

    • 6.3.8.EconET.1 Using quantitative data, evaluate the opportunity cost of a proposed economic action, and take a position and support it (e.g., healthcare, education, transportation).

    • 6.3.8.EconET.2 Assess the impact of government incentives and disincentives on the economy (e.g., patents, protection of private property, taxes).