I Understand the structure and properties of matter, the characteristics of energy, and the interactions between matter and energy.
I Recognize that matter has different forms and properties.
1 Know that changes to matter may be chemical or physical and when two or more substances are combined, a new substance may be formed with properties that are different from those of the original substances (e.g., white glue and borax, cornstarch and water, vinegar and baking soda).
3 Know that the mass of the same amount of material remains constant whether it is together, in parts, or in a different state.
II Know that energy is needed to get things done and that energy has different forms.
1 Identify the characteristics of several different forms of energy and describe how energy can be converted from one form to another (e.g., light to heat, motion to heat, electricity to heat, light, or motion).
2 Recognize that energy can be stored in many ways (e.g., potential energy in gravity or springs, chemical energy in batteries).
3 Describe how some waves move through materials (e.g., water, sound) and how others can move through a vacuum (e.g., x-ray, television, radio).
4 Demonstrate how electricity flows through a simple circuit (e.g., by constructing one).
III Identify forces and describe the motion of objects.
1 Know that energy can be carried from one place to another by waves (e.g., water waves, sound waves), by electric currents, and by moving objects.
2 Describe the motion of an object by measuring its change of position over a period of time.
3 Describe that gravity exerts more force on objects with greater mass (e.g., it takes more force to hold up a heavy object than a lighter one).
4 Describe how some forces act on contact and other forces act at a distance (e.g., a person pushing a rock versus gravity acting on a rock).
II II Life Science: Understand the properties, structures, and processes of living things and the interdependence of living things and their environments.
I Know that living things have diverse forms, structures, functions, and habitats.
1 Explain that different living organisms have distinctive structures and body systems that serve specific functions (e.g., walking, flying, swimming).
2 Know that humans and other living things have senses to help them detect stimuli, and that sensations (e.g., hunger) and stimuli (e.g., changes in the environment) influence the behavior of organisms.
3 Describe how roots are associated with the intake of water and soil nutrients and green leaves are associated with making food from sunlight (photosynthesis).
II Know that living things have similarities and differences and that living things change over time.
1 Know that in any particular environment some kinds of plants and animals survive well, some survive less well, and others cannot survive at all.
2 Know that a change in physical structure or behavior can improve an organism's chance of survival (e.g., a chameleon changes color, a turtle pulls its head into its shell, a plant grows toward the light).
3 Describe how some living organisms have developed characteristics from generation to generation to improve chances of survival (e.g., spines on cacti, long beaks on hummingbirds, good eyesight on hawks).
III Know the parts of the human body and their functions.
1 Know that the human body has many parts that interact to function as systems (e.g., skeletal, muscular) and describe the parts and their specific functions in selected systems (e.g., the nose, lungs, and diaphragm in the respiratory system).
I Understand how scientific discoveries, inventions, practices, and knowledge influence, and are influenced by, individuals and societies.
I Describe how science influences decisions made by individuals and societies.
1 Know that science has identified substances called pollutants that get into the environment and can be harmful to living things.
2 Know that, through science and technology, a wide variety of materials not appearing in nature have become available (e.g., steel, plastic, nylon, fiber optics).
3 Know that science has created ways to store and retrieve information (e.g., paper and ink, printing press, computers, CD ROMs) but that these are not perfect (e.g., faulty programming, defective hardware).
4 Know that both men and women of all races and social backgrounds choose science as a career.