11-12W1 Write arguments to support claims that analyze substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
11-12W1a Introduce precise claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from counterclaim(s), and create an organization that logically sequences claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
11-12W1b Develop claim(s) and counterclaim(s) thoroughly and in a balanced manner, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both, anticipating the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
11-12W2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
11-12W2a Introduce and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole.
11-12W2b Develop a topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, direct quotations and paraphrased information or other examples, appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic. Include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
11-12W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
11-12W3a Engage the reader by presenting a problem, conflict, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters.
11-12W3c Use a variety of techniques to sequence events to create cohesion, a smooth progression of experiences or events, and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
11-12W3d Use precise words and phrases, explicit details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
11-12W3e Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
11-12W4 Create a poem, story, play, art work, or other response to a text, author, theme or personal experience; demonstrate knowledge and understanding of a variety of techniques and genres. Explain connections between the original and the created work.
11-12W5 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Apply grade 11/12 Reading standards to both literary and informational text, where applicable.
11-12W6 Conduct research through self-generated question, or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate. Synthesize multiple sources, demonstrating understanding and analysis of the subject under investigation.
11-12W7 Gather relevant information from multiple sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas; avoid plagiarism, overreliance on one source, and follow a standard format for citation.