S1.2c differentiate among observations, inferences, predictions, and explanations
S1.3 Represent, present, and defend their proposed explanations of everyday observations so that they can be understood and assessed by others.
S1.4 Seek to clarify, to assess critically, and to reconcile with their own thinking the ideas presented by others, including peers, teachers, authors, and scientists.
2 Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.
S2.1 Use conventional techniques and those of their own design to make further observations and refine their explanations, guided by a need for more information.
S2.1a demonstrate appropriate safety techniques
S2.1b conduct an experiment designed by others
S2.1c design and conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis
S2.1d use appropriate tools and conventional techniques to solve problems about the natural world, including:
S2.2 Develop, present, and defend formal research proposals for testing their own explanations of common phenomena, including ways of obtaining needed observations and ways of conducting simple controlled experiments.
S2.2a include appropriate safety procedures
S2.2b design scientific investigations (e.g., observing, describing, and comparing; collecting samples; seeking more information, conducting a controlled experiment; discovering new objects or phenomena; making models)
S2.2c design a simple controlled experiment
S2.2d identify independent variables (manipulated), dependent variables (responding), and constants in a simple controlled experiment
S2.2e choose appropriate sample size and number of trials
S2.3 Carry out their research proposals, recording observations and measurements (e.g., lab notes, audiotape, computer disk, videotape) to help assess the explanation.
S3.3 Modify their personal understanding of phenomena based on evaluation of their hypothesis.
1 Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization (finding the best solution within given constraints); this process is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints.
T1.1 Identify needs and opportunities for technical solutions from an investigation of situations of general or social interest.
T1.1a identify a scientific or human need that is subject to a technological solution which applies scientific principles
T1.2 Locate and utilize a range of printed, electronic, and human information resources to obtain ideas.
T1.2a use all available information systems for a preliminary search that addresses the need
T1.3 Consider constraints and generate several ideas for alternative solutions, using group and individual ideation techniques (group discussion, brainstorming, forced connections, role play); defer judgment until a number of ideas have been generated; evaluate (critique) ideas; and explain why the chosen solution is optimal.
T1.3a generate ideas for alternative solutions
T1.3b evaluate alternatives based on the constraints of design
T1.4 Develop plans, including drawings with measurements and details of construction, and construct a model of the solution, exhibiting a degree of craftsmanship.
T1.4a design and construct a model of the product or process
T1.4b construct a model of the product or process
T1.5 In a group setting, test their solution against design specifications, present and evaluate results, describe how the solution might have been modified for different or better results, and discuss trade-offs that might have to be made.