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Skills available for New York fifth-grade social studies standards

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5.1 The first humans in the Western Hemisphere modified their physical environment as well as adapted to their environment. Their interactions with their environment led to various innovations and to the development of unique cultures.

  • 5.1a Various forms of scientific evidence suggest that humans came to North America approximately 25,000 to 14,000 years ago and spread southward to South America.

    • Students will examine the various theories of the migration routes by which the first humans may have arrived, including the Beringia land bridge, using maps and archaeological evidence.

  • 5.1b Human populations that settled along rivers, in rainforests, along oceans, in deserts, on plains, in mountains, and in cold climates adapted to and made use of the resources and environment around them in developing distinct ways of life.

  • 5.1c Early peoples living together in settlements developed shared cultures with customs, beliefs, values, and languages that give identity to the group. These early peoples also developed patterns of organization and governance to manage their societies.

    • Students will examine maps that show the variety of different Native American groups located in the Western Hemisphere, noting that there are many different culture groups in many different types of physical, climate, and vegetative regions.

    • Students will select one Native American culture group from the United States, one from Canada, and one from the Caribbean region and compare and contrast them by examining how each of these groups adapted to and used the environment and its resources to meet their basic needs, and by examining elements of their culture, including customs, beliefs, values, languages, and patterns of organization and governance.

5.2 Between 1100 B.C.E. and 1500 C.E, complex societies and civilizations developed in the Western Hemisphere. Although these complex societies and civilizations have certain defining characteristics in common, each is also known for unique cultural achievements and contributions.

5.3 Various European powers explored and eventually colonized the Western Hemisphere. This had a profound effect on Native Americans and led to the transatlantic slave trade.

  • 5.3a Europeans traveled to the Americas in search of new trade routes, including a northwest passage, and resources. They hoped to gain wealth, power, and glory.

  • 5.3b Europeans encountered and interacted with Native Americans in a variety of ways.

    • Students will examine the how Native Americans viewed the newcomers.

    • Students will examine European interactions with Native Americans, using these examples:

      • Conquests by Cortez and Pizarro and the resulting demographic change

      • French in Canada and the fur trade

  • 5.3c The transatlantic trade of goods, movement of people, and spread of ideas and diseases resulted in cultural diffusion. This cultural diffusion became known as the Columbian Exchange and reshaped the lives and beliefs of people.

  • 5.3d Africans were captured, brought to the Americas, and sold as slaves. Their transport across the Atlantic was known as the Middle Passage.

    • Students will investigate why sugar was brought to the Americas, noting where it was grown and why, and the role of supply and demand.

    • Students will examine the conditions experienced by enslaved Africans during the Middle Passage.

5.4 The diverse geography of the Western Hemisphere has influenced human culture and settlement in distinct ways. Human communities in the Western Hemisphere have modified the physical environment.

5.5 The countries of the Western Hemisphere are diverse and the cultures of these countries are rich and varied. Due to their proximity to each other, the countries of the Western Hemisphere share some of the same concerns and issues.

  • 5.5a The countries of the Western Hemisphere have varied characteristics and contributions that distinguish them from other countries.

    • Students will explore key cultural characteristics, such as the languages, religions and contributions, of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and one Caribbean or one South American country.

    • Students will compare and contrast key cultural characteristics and contributions associated with the United States with those associated with Canada, Mexico, and a country in either the Caribbean or South America.

  • 5.5b Countries in the Western Hemisphere face a variety of concerns and issues specific to the region.

    • Students will investigate a current issue that two or more Western Hemisphere countries are facing together. Some examples include environmental issues, immigration, and trade.

5.6 The political systems of the Western Hemisphere vary in structure and organization across time and place.

5.7 The peoples of the Western Hemisphere have developed various ways to meet their needs and wants. Many of the countries of the Western Hemisphere trade with each other, as well as with other countries around the world.

  • 5.7a Different types of economic systems have developed across time and place within the Western Hemisphere. These economic systems, including traditional, market, and command, address the three economic questions: what will be produced, how it will be produced, and who will get what is produced?

    • Students will explore the characteristics of a traditional economy used by the Plains Indians, the market economy of the United States or Canada, and the command economy of Cuba, noting similarities and differences.

  • 5.7b Peoples of the Western Hemisphere have engaged in a variety of economic activities to meet their needs and wants.

    • Students will identify the major natural resources of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and one Caribbean or one South American country to determine the major industries of those countries in relation to available resources.

    • Students will examine why certain products are manufactured in particular places, taking into account the weight, transportation availability, and costs and markets (e.g., soda pop).

  • 5.7c Countries trade with other countries to meet economic needs and wants. They are interdependent.

    • Students will examine products that are imported into markets within the United States based on demand for these products, noting how this affects the United States economy.

    • Students will examine products that are exported from the United States to other markets in the Western Hemisphere, noting how this affects the United States economy.