5.1 The first humans in the Western Hemisphere modified their physical environment as well as adapted to their environment. Their interactions with their environment led to various innovations and to the development of unique cultures.
5.1a Various forms of scientific evidence suggest that humans came to North America approximately 25,000 to 14,000 years ago and spread southward to South America.
Students will examine the various theories of the migration routes by which the first humans may have arrived, including the Beringia land bridge, using maps and archaeological evidence.
5.1b Human populations that settled along rivers, in rainforests, along oceans, in deserts, on plains, in mountains, and in cold climates adapted to and made use of the resources and environment around them in developing distinct ways of life.
5.1c Early peoples living together in settlements developed shared cultures with customs, beliefs, values, and languages that give identity to the group. These early peoples also developed patterns of organization and governance to manage their societies.
Students will examine maps that show the variety of different Native American groups located in the Western Hemisphere, noting that there are many different culture groups in many different types of physical, climate, and vegetative regions.
Students will select one Native American culture group from the United States, one from Canada, and one from the Caribbean region and compare and contrast them by examining how each of these groups adapted to and used the environment and its resources to meet their basic needs, and by examining elements of their culture, including customs, beliefs, values, languages, and patterns of organization and governance.
5.2 Between 1100 B.C.E. and 1500 C.E, complex societies and civilizations developed in the Western Hemisphere. Although these complex societies and civilizations have certain defining characteristics in common, each is also known for unique cultural achievements and contributions.
5.2a Civilizations share certain common characteristics of religion, job specialization, cities, government, language and writing systems, technology, and social hierarchy.
Students will locate the complex societies and civilizations of the Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas on a map, and students will determine when these societies and civilizations occurred.
5.2b Complex societies and civilizations adapted to and modified their environment to meet the needs of their people.
Students will compare how the Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas adapted to and modified their environment to meet the needs of the people, examining the clothing, farming, shelter, and transportation systems for each.
5.2c Political states can take different forms, such as city-states and empires. A city-state is comprised of a city with a government that controls the surrounding territory, while an empire is a political organization developed when a single, supreme authority takes control over other geographic and/or cultural regions beyond its initial settlements.
Students will compare and contrast political states of the Maya and the Aztec, noting the territories that they controlled, the type of rule each had, and how the ruler attempted to unify the people.
5.3 Various European powers explored and eventually colonized the Western Hemisphere. This had a profound effect on Native Americans and led to the transatlantic slave trade.
5.3a Europeans traveled to the Americas in search of new trade routes, including a northwest passage, and resources. They hoped to gain wealth, power, and glory.
Students will investigate explorers from different European countries and map the areas of the Western Hemisphere where they explored, including Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Jacques Cartier, Pedro Cabral, and Vasco Nunez de Balboa.
Students will map the key areas of the Western Hemisphere that were colonized by the English, Dutch, French, Portuguese, and Spanish, comparing the locations, relative sizes, and key resources of these regions.
5.3b Europeans encountered and interacted with Native Americans in a variety of ways.
Students will examine the how Native Americans viewed the newcomers.
Students will examine European interactions with Native Americans, using these examples:
Conquests by Cortez and Pizarro and the resulting demographic change
French in Canada and the fur trade
5.3c The transatlantic trade of goods, movement of people, and spread of ideas and diseases resulted in cultural diffusion. This cultural diffusion became known as the Columbian Exchange and reshaped the lives and beliefs of people.
Students will map the movement of people, plants, animals, and disease between Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
5.4 The diverse geography of the Western Hemisphere has influenced human culture and settlement in distinct ways. Human communities in the Western Hemisphere have modified the physical environment.
5.4a Physical maps reflect the varied climate zones, landforms, bodies of water, and natural resources of the Western Hemisphere.
5.4b The Western Hemisphere can be divided into regions. Regions are areas that share common, identifiable characteristics such as physical, political, economic, or cultural features. Regions within the Western Hemisphere include:
5.4c The physical environment influences human population distribution, land use, and other forms of economic activity.
Students will map the regions within the Western Hemisphere and locate major physical features within each region.
Students will create a political map of the Western Hemisphere, noting which countries are in which region, and a political map of the United States showing the location of the states.
Students will use physical, climate, and vegetation maps in combination with population density, land use, and resource distribution maps to discern patterns in human settlement and types of economic activity.
5.5 The countries of the Western Hemisphere are diverse and the cultures of these countries are rich and varied. Due to their proximity to each other, the countries of the Western Hemisphere share some of the same concerns and issues.
5.5a The countries of the Western Hemisphere have varied characteristics and contributions that distinguish them from other countries.
Students will explore key cultural characteristics, such as the languages, religions and contributions, of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and one Caribbean or one South American country.
Students will compare and contrast key cultural characteristics and contributions associated with the United States with those associated with Canada, Mexico, and a country in either the Caribbean or South America.
5.5b Countries in the Western Hemisphere face a variety of concerns and issues specific to the region.
Students will investigate a current issue that two or more Western Hemisphere countries are facing together. Some examples include environmental issues, immigration, and trade.
Students will compare and contrast the government structures and functions of the United States government with those of Canada, Mexico, and one other country in either the Caribbean or South America.
5.6b Legal, political, and historic documents define the values, beliefs, and principles of constitutional democracy.
Students will examine the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights, the British North America Act, and the Canadian Bill of Rights in terms of key values, beliefs, and principles of constitutional democracy.
5.6c Across time and place, different groups of people in the Western Hemisphere have struggled and fought for equality and civil rights or sovereignty.
Students will examine at least one group of people, such as Native Americans, African Americans, women, or another cultural, ethnic, or racial minority in the Western Hemisphere, who have struggled or are struggling for equality and civil rights or sovereignty.
5.6d Multinational organizations and nongovernmental organizations in the Western Hemisphere seek to encourage cooperation between nations, protect human rights, support economic development, and provide assistance in challenging situations.
Students will examine multinational organizations and nongovernmental organizations and their roles in promoting cooperation, peace, and cultural understanding.
5.7 The peoples of the Western Hemisphere have developed various ways to meet their needs and wants. Many of the countries of the Western Hemisphere trade with each other, as well as with other countries around the world.
5.7a Different types of economic systems have developed across time and place within the Western Hemisphere. These economic systems, including traditional, market, and command, address the three economic questions: what will be produced, how it will be produced, and who will get what is produced?
Students will explore the characteristics of a traditional economy used by the Plains Indians, the market economy of the United States or Canada, and the command economy of Cuba, noting similarities and differences.
5.7b Peoples of the Western Hemisphere have engaged in a variety of economic activities to meet their needs and wants.
Students will identify the major natural resources of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and one Caribbean or one South American country to determine the major industries of those countries in relation to available resources.