4: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.
1 The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.
1.1 Explain daily, monthly, and seasonal changes on Earth.
1.1a Earth's Sun is an average-sized star. The Sun is more than a million times greater in volume than Earth.
1.1b Other stars are like the Sun but are so far away that they look like points of light. Distances between stars are vast compared to distances within our solar system.
1.1c The Sun and the planets that revolve around it are the major bodies in the solar system. Other members include comets, moons, and asteroids. Earth' orbit is nearly circular.
1.1d Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the Moon in orbit around the Earth.
1.1e Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as a day, a year, phases of the Moon, eclipses, tides, meteor showers, and comets.
1.1f The latitude/longitude coordinate system and our system of time are based on celestial observations.
1.1g Moons are seen by reflected light. Our Moon orbits Earth, while Earth orbits the Sun. The Moon's phases as observed from Earth are the result of seeing different portions of the lighted area of the Moon's surface. The phases repeat in a cyclic pattern in about one month.
1.1h The apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars across the sky can be explained by Earth's rotation and revolution. Earth's rotation causes the length of one day to be approximately 24 hours. This rotation also causes the Sun and Moon to appear to rise along the eastern horizon and to set along the western horizon. Earth's revolution around the Sun defines the length of the year as 365 1/4 days.
1.1i The tilt of Earth's axis of rotation and the revolution of Earth around the Sun cause seasons on Earth. The length of daylight varies depending on latitude and season.
1.1j The shape of Earth, the other planets, and stars is nearly spherical.
2 Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.
2.1 Explain how the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and lithosphere (land) interact, evolve, and change.
2.1a Nearly all the atmosphere is confined to a thin shell surrounding Earth. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases, including nitrogen and oxygen with small amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases. The atmosphere is stratified into layers, each having distinct properties. Nearly all weather occurs in the lowest layer of the atmosphere.
2.1d The majority of the lithosphere is covered by a relatively thin layer of water called the hydrosphere.
2.1e Rocks are composed of minerals. Only a few rock-forming minerals make up most of the rocks of Earth. Minerals are identified on the basis of physical properties such as streak, hardness, and reaction to acid.
2.1h The process of weathering breaks down rocks to form sediment. Soil consists of sediment, organic material, water, and air.
2.1i Erosion is the transport of sediment. Gravity is the driving force behind erosion. Gravity can act directly or through agents such as moving water, wind, and glaciers.
2.1j Water circulates through the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere in what is known as the water cycle.
2.2 Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.
2.2a The interior of Earth is hot. Heat flow and movement of material within Earth cause sections of Earth's crust to move. This may result in earthquakes, volcanic eruption, and the creation of mountains and ocean basins.
2.2b Analysis of earthquake wave data (vibrational disturbances) leads to the conclusion that there are layers within Earth. These layers - the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core - have distinct properties.
2.2c Folded, tilted, faulted, and displaced rock layers suggest past crustal movement.
2.2d Continents fitting together like puzzle parts and fossil correlations provided initial evidence that continents were once together.
2.2e The Theory of Plate Tectonics explains how the "solid" lithosphere consists of a series of plates that "float" on the partially molten section of the mantle. Convection cells within the mantle may be the driving force for the movement of the plates.
2.2f Plates may collide, move apart, or slide past one another. Most volcanic activity and mountain building occur at the boundaries of these plates, often resulting in earthquakes.
2.2g Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of rocks are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions.
2.2k The uneven heating of Earth's surface is the cause of weather.
2.2l Air masses form when air remains nearly stationary over a large section of Earth's surface and takes on the conditions of temperature and humidity from that location. Weather conditions at a location are determined primarily by temperature, humidity, and pressure of air masses over that location.
2.2m Most local weather condition changes are caused by movement of air masses.
2.2n The movement of air masses is determined by prevailing winds and upper air currents.
2.2o Fronts are boundaries between air masses. Precipitation is likely to occur at these boundaries.
2.2p High-pressure systems generally bring fair weather. Low-pressure systems usually bring cloudy, unstable conditions. The general movement of highs and lows is from west to east across the United States.
2.2q Hazardous weather conditions include thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, ice storms, and blizzards. Humans can prepare for and respond to these conditions if given sufficient warning.
2.2r Substances enter the atmosphere naturally and from human activity. Some of these substances include dust from volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These substances can affect weather, climate, and living things.
3 Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.
3.1 Observe and describe properties of materials, such as density, conductivity, and solubility.
3.1a Substances have characteristic properties. Some of these properties include color, odor, phase at room temperature, density, solubility, heat and electrical conductivity, hardness, and boiling and freezing points.
3.1b Solubility can be affected by the nature of the solute and solvent, temperature, and pressure. The rate of solution can be affected by the size of the particles, stirring, temperature, and the amount of solute already dissolved.
3.1c The motion of particles helps to explain the phases (states) of matter as well as changes from one phase to another. The phase in which matter exists depends on the attractive forces among its particles.
3.1d Gases have neither a determined shape nor a definite volume. Gases assume the shape and volume of a closed container.
3.1g Characteristic properties can be used to identify different materials, and separate a mixture of substances into its components. For example, iron can be removed from a mixture by means of a magnet. An insoluble substance can be separated from a soluble substance by such processes as filtration, settling, and evaporation.
3.1h Density can be described as the amount of matter that is in a given amount of space. If two objects have equal volume, but one has more mass, the one with more mass is denser.
3.1i Buoyancy is determined by comparative densities.
3.2 Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.
3.2a During a physical change a substance keeps its chemical composition and properties. Examples of physical changes include freezing, melting, condensation, boiling, evaporation, tearing, and crushing.
3.2c During a chemical change, substances react in characteristic ways to form new substances with different physical and chemical properties. Examples of chemical changes include burning of wood, cooking of an egg, rusting of iron, and souring of milk.
3.2d Substances are often placed in categories if they react in similar ways. Examples include metals, nonmetals, and noble gases.
3.2e The Law of Conservation of Mass states that during an ordinary chemical reaction matter cannot be created or destroyed. In chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.
3.3g The periodic table is one useful model for classifying elements. The periodic table can be used to predict properties of elements (metals, nonmetals, noble gases).
4 Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.
4.1 Describe the sources and identify the transformations of energy observed in everyday life.
4.1a The Sun is a major source of energy for Earth. Other sources of energy include nuclear and geothermal energy.
4.1b Fossil fuels contain stored solar energy and are considered nonrenewable resources. They are a major source of energy in the United States. Solar energy, wind, moving water, and biomass are some examples of renewable energy resources.
4.1c Most activities in everyday life involve one form of energy being transformed into another. For example, the chemical energy in gasoline is transformed into mechanical energy in an automobile engine. Energy, in the form of heat, is almost always one of the products of energy transformations.
4.1d Different forms of energy include heat, light, electrical, mechanical, sound, nuclear, and chemical. Energy is transformed in many ways.
4.2b Heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms and/or molecules (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection).
4.2c During a phase change, heat energy is absorbed or released. Energy is absorbed when a solid changes to a liquid and when a liquid changes to a gas. Energy is released when a gas changes to a liquid and when a liquid changes to a solid.
4.2d Most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled. Water is an exception, expanding when changing to ice.
4.2e Temperature affects the solubility of some substances in water.
4.3 Observe and describe energy changes as related to chemical reactions.
4.3a In chemical reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system. Light, electricity, or mechanical motion may be involved in such transfers in addition to heat.
4.4 Observe and describe the properties of sound, light, magnetism, and electricity.
4.4a Different forms of electromagnetic energy have different wavelengths. Some examples of electromagnetic energy are microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays.
4.4b Light passes through some materials, sometimes refracting in the process. Materials absorb and reflect light, and may transmit light. To see an object, light from that object, emitted by or reflected from it, must enter the eye.
4.4c Vibrations in materials set up wave-like disturbances that spread away from the source. Sound waves are an example. Vibrational waves move at different speeds in different materials. Sound cannot travel in a vacuum.
4.4d Electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources and can be transformed into almost any other form of energy.
4.4e Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy.
4.4f Without touching them, material that has been electrically charged attracts uncharged material, and may either attract or repel other charged material.
4.4g Without direct contact, a magnet attracts certain materials and either attracts or repels other magnets. The attractive force of a magnet is greatest at its poles.
5.1c An object's motion is the result of the combined effect of all forces acting on the object. A moving object that is not subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed in a straight line. An object at rest will remain at rest.
5.2 Observe, describe, and compare effects of forces (gravity, electric current, and magnetism) on the motion of objects.
5.2a Every object exerts gravitational force on every other object. Gravitational force depends on how much mass the objects have and on how far apart they are. Gravity is one of the forces acting on orbiting objects and projectiles.
5.2b Electric currents and magnets can exert a force on each other.