Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.
N.Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
A.APR Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions
Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.
A.APR.1 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, that they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.
A.APR.1a Focus on polynomial expressions that simplify to forms that are linear or quadratic.
Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.
A.REI.1 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.
A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations as appropriate to the initial form of the equation by inspection, e.g., for x² = 49; taking square roots; completing the square; applying the quadratic formula; or utilizing the Zero-Product Property after factoring.
A.REI.11 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equation y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, making tables of values, or finding successive approximations.
A.REI.12 Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.
Understand the concept of a function, and use function notation.
F.IF.1 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.
F.IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.
F.IF.4b Focus on linear, quadratic, and exponential functions.
Analyze functions using different representations.
F.IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and indicate key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. Include applications and how key features relate to characteristics of a situation, making selection of a particular type of function model appropriate.
F.IF.7a Graph linear functions and indicate intercepts.
F.IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.
F.IF.8a Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context. Focus on completing the square to quadratic functions with the leading coefficient of 1.
Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.
F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.
F.BF.1a Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from context. Focus on linear and exponential functions and situations that exhibit quadratic or exponential relationships.
F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.
F.BF.3a Focus on transformations of graphs of quadratic functions, except for f(kx).
F.LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).
S.ID.2 In the context of real-world applications by using the GAISE model, use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median and mean) and spread (mean absolute deviation, interquartile range, and standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.
S.ID.3 In the context of real-world applications by using the GAISE model, interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).
Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables.
S.ID.5 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.