d explaining how geography and economics influence the structure of government
C&G 1 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed by
a comparing and contrasting the key stages of development of the rule of law, as presented in various enduring/significant documents (e.g., Magna Carta, Preamble of U.S. Constitution, U.N. Rights of the Child, "I Have A Dream" speech)
b explaining why the rule of law is necessary to the role of government (e.g., debate/ Robert's Rules of Order, classroom procedures)
c defining and identifying the nature of authority and sources of power
C&G 2 The Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches.
C&G 2 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by
a identifying the functions of the three branches of government; and analyzing and describing the interrelationship among the branches (i.e., checks and balances/ cause and effect, separation of powers)
c tracing the process of how an idea transforms into a bill and then becomes a law
C&G 2 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by
a explaining how democratic values are reflected in enduring documents, political speeches (discourse), and group actions
b using a variety of sources to identify and defend a position on a democratic principle (e.g., self-government in Declaration of Independence, women's rights in Seneca Falls Declaration, Habeas Corpus in Laws of 12 Tables, freedom of religion in Washington's letter to the Touro Synagogue)
c evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of various political systems (e.g., dictatorship, oligarchy, monarchy, democracy, theocracy)
d examining how elections are/can be vehicles of change
e recognizing multiple perspectives on historical or current controversial issues
C&G 4 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by
a expressing and defending an informed opinion and presenting their opinion to an audience beyond the classroom (e.g., political cartoon, letter, speech, emailing Congressional membership)
b describing their role and impact in the voting process
c engaging in the political process (e.g., mock elections)
C&G 4 (7-8)-3 Students participate in a civil society by
a demonstrating an understanding and empathy for the opinions of others (e.g., listening to and asking relevant questions, considering alternative perspectives, voicing alternative points of view, recognizing bias)
b demonstrating the ability to compromise (e.g., offering solutions, persisting to resolve issues)
c recognizing the cause(s) and effect(s) of taking a civil action
d utilizing a variety of reliable sources to develop an informed opinion
C&G 5 As members of an interconnected world community, the choices we make impact others locally, nationally, and globally.
C&G 5 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways Earth's people are interconnected by
a tracing and explaining social, technological, geographical, economical, and cultural connections for a given society of people (e.g., trade, transportation, communication)
b identifying, describing, and explaining how people are politically, economically, environmentally, militarily, and (or) diplomatically connected (e.g., World Bank, UN, NATO, European Union)
b correlating key events to develop an understanding of the historical perspective of the time period in which they occurred (e.g., Jacksonian Democracy and Dorr's Rebellion, water power and steam power, WWII and women at work)
HP 2 (7-8)-3 Students show understanding of change over time by
a establishing a chronological order by working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its origins and its development over time; and to construct an historical narrative
HP 3 The study of history helps us understand the present and shape the future.
HP 3 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by
a analyzing and reporting on a social movement from its inception (including historical causes), its impacts on us today, and its implications for the future
b evaluating alternative courses of action, (keeping in mind the context of the time), ethical considerations, and the interest of those affected by the decision, and determining the long- and short-term consequences (e.g., Post WWII use of Narragansett Bay - tourism vs. oil refinery)
HP 3 (7-8)-2 Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by
a recognizing and reflecting on how the similarities of human issues across time periods influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)
b recognizing and reflecting on how the differences of human issues across time periods influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)
c comparing and contrasting the cultural influences that shape individuals and historical events (e.g., Conversion of Quakers from slave holders to abolitionists, emergence of mill villages, Gordon Trial)
c describing how inventions and technological improvements (e.g., irrigation systems, road construction, science) relate to settlement, population growth, and success of a civilization/ country/ nation.
b applying demographic factors (e.g., urban/rural, religion, socioeconomics, race, ethnicity) to understand changes in cultural diversity in an historical and contemporary context.
HP 5 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding that culture has affected how people in a society behave in relation to groups and their environment by
a comparing and contrasting how cultural expectations impact people's behavior and role in different communities/ societies (e.g., student protocols in 1800 vs. today).
b using an historical context, describe how diversity contributes to cultural diffusion, acculturation, or assimilation (e.g., "Melting Pot").
c describing how environment (e.g., physical, cultural, etc.) or changes in that environment affects a civilization/country/nation (e.g., settlement, conflicts, transportation, climate change, commerce).