4.E.2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the water cycle and weather and climate patterns.
4.E.2A Earth's atmosphere is a mixture of gases, including water vapor and oxygen. The movement of water, which is found almost everywhere on Earth including the atmosphere, changes form and cycles between Earth's surface and the air and back again. This cycling of water is driven by energy from the Sun. The movement of water in the water cycle is a major pattern that influences weather conditions. Clouds form during this cycle and various types of precipitation result.
4.E.2A.1 Obtain and communicate information about some of the gases in the atmosphere (including oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor) to develop models that exemplify the composition of Earth's atmosphere where weather takes place.
4.E.2A.2 Develop and use models to explain how water changes as it moves between the atmosphere and Earth's surface during each phase of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff).
4.E.2B Scientists record patterns in weather conditions across time and place to make predictions about what kind of weather might occur next. Climate describes the range of an area's typical weather conditions and the extent to which those conditions vary over long periods of time. Some weather conditions lead to severe weather phenomena that have different effects and safety concerns.
4.E.2B.1 Analyze and interpret data from observations, measurements, and weather maps to describe patterns in local weather conditions (including temperature, precipitation, wind speed/direction, relative humidity, and cloud types) and predict changes in weather over time.
4.E.2B.2 Obtain and communicate information about severe weather phenomena (including thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornadoes) to explain steps humans can take to reduce the impact of severe weather phenomena.
4.E.3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the locations, movements, and patterns of stars and objects in the solar system.
4.E.3A Astronomy is the study of objects in our solar system and beyond. A solar system includes a sun, (star), and all other objects that orbit that sun. Planets in our night sky change positions and are not always visible from Earth as they orbit our Sun. Stars that are beyond the solar system can be seen in the night sky in patterns called constellations. Constellations can be used for navigation and appear to move together across the sky because of Earth's rotation.
4.E.3A.1 Develop and use models of Earth's solar system to exemplify the location and order of the planets as they orbit the Sun and the main composition (rock or gas) of the planets.
4.E.3A.2 Obtain and communicate information to describe how constellations (including Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, and Orion) appear to move from Earth's perspective throughout the seasons.
4.E.3A.3 Construct scientific arguments to support claims about the importance of astronomy in navigation and exploration (including the use of telescopes, astrolabes, compasses, and sextants).
4.E.3B Earth orbits around the Sun and the Moon orbits around Earth. These movements together with the rotation of Earth on a tilted axis result in patterns that can be observed and predicted.
4.E.3B.1 Analyze and interpret data from observations to describe patterns in the (1) location, (2) movement, and (3) appearance of the Moon throughout the year.
4.E.3B.2 Construct explanations of how day and night result from Earth's rotation on its axis.
4.E.3B.3 Construct explanations of how the Sun appears to move throughout the day using observations of shadows.
4.E.3B.4 Develop and use models to describe the factors (including tilt, revolution, and angle of sunlight) that result in Earth's seasonal changes.
P.4 Physical Science: Forms of Energy – Light and Sound
4.P.4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties of light and sound as forms of energy.
4.P.4A Light, as a form of energy, has specific properties including color and brightness. Light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object. The way light reacts when it strikes an object depends on the object's properties.
4.P.4A.1 Construct scientific arguments to support the claim that white light is made up of different colors.
4.P.4A.2 Analyze and interpret data from observations and measurements to describe how the apparent brightness of light can vary as a result of the distance and intensity of the light source.
4.P.4A.3 Obtain and communicate information to explain how the visibility of an object is related to light.
4.P.4A.4 Develop and use models to describe how light travels and interacts when it strikes an object (including reflection, refraction, and absorption) using evidence from observations.
4.P.4A.5 Plan and conduct scientific investigations to explain how light behaves when it strikes transparent, translucent, and opaque materials.
4.P.4B Sound, as a form of energy, is produced by vibrating objects and has specific properties including pitch and volume. Sound travels through air and other materials and is used to communicate information in various forms of technology.
4.P.4B.1 Plan and conduct scientific investigations to test how different variables affect the properties of sound (including pitch and volume).
4.P.4B.2 Analyze and interpret data from observations and measurements to describe how changes in vibration affects the pitch and volume of sound.
4.P.4B.3 Define problems related to the communication of information over a distance and design devices or solutions that use sound to solve the problem.
L.5 Life Science: Characteristics and Growth of Organisms
4.L.5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the structural characteristics and traits of plants and animals allow them to survive, grow, and reproduce.
4.L.5A Scientists have identified and classified many types of plants and animals. Each plant or animal has a unique pattern of growth and development called a life cycle. Some characteristics (traits) that organisms have are inherited and some result from interactions with the environment.
4.L.5A.1 Obtain and communicate information about the characteristics of plants and animals to develop models which classify plants as flowering or nonflowering and animals as vertebrate or invertebrate.
4.L.5B Plants and animals have physical characteristics that allow them to receive information from the environment. Structural adaptations within groups of plants and animals allow them to better survive and reproduce.
4.L.5B.1 Develop and use models to compare how humans and other animals use their senses and sensory organs to detect and respond to signals from the environment.