4-1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of political, economic, and geographic reasons for the exploration of the New World.
The rewards that were reaped from the exploration of the New World far outweighed the risks that were involved. To understand the motivations for exploration and the cause-and-effect relationships between its risks and rewards, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
4-1.1 Summarize the spread of Native American populations using the Landbridge Theory.
4-1.2 Compare the everyday life, physical environment, and culture of the major Native American cultural groupings, including the Eastern Woodlands, the Plains, the Southwest, the Great Basin, and the Pacific Northwest.
4-1.3 Explain the political, economic, and technological factors that led to the exploration of the new world by Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands, and England, including the competition between nations, the expansion of international trade, and the technological advances in shipbuilding and navigation.
4-1.4 Summarize the accomplishments of the Vikings and the Portuguese, Spanish, English, and French explorers, including Leif Eriksson, Columbus, Hernando de Soto, Magellan, Henry Hudson, John Cabot, and La Salle.
4-2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the settlement of North America was influenced by the interactions of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans.
The interaction among peoples from three different continents created a distinctly American culture. To understand the contributions made by Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans to the settlement of North America, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
4-2.1 Summarize the cause-and-effect relationships of the Columbian Exchange.
4-2.2 Compare the various European settlements in North America in terms of economic activities, religious emphasis, government, and lifestyles.
4-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflict between the American colonies and England.
Revolutions result from resistance to conditions that are perceived as unfair by the people who are demanding change. The changes brought about by revolution can be both positive and negative. To understand the results of the conflict between the American colonies and England, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
4-3.1 Explain the major political and economic factors leading to the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War, the Stamp Act, the Tea Act, and the Intolerable Acts as well as American resistance to these acts through boycotts, petitions, and congresses.
4-3.3 Summarize the importance of the key battles of the Revolutionary War and the reasons for American victories including Lexington and Concord, Bunker (Breed's) Hill, Charleston, Saratoga, Cowpens, and Yorktown.
4-4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the beginnings of America as a nation and the establishment of the new government.
After independence was declared, Americans were faced with creating a new form of government that would embody the ideals for which they had fought. To understand the development of these United States into a new nation, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
4-4.1 Compare the ideas in the Articles of Confederation with those in the United States Constitution, including how powers are now shared between state and national government and how individuals and states are represented in Congress.
4-4.2 Explain the structure and function of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government.
4-4.3 Explain how the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights placed importance on the active involvement of citizens in government and protected the rights of white male property owners but not those of the slaves, women, and Native Americans.
4-4.4 Compare the roles and accomplishments of early leaders in the development of the new nation, including George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, John Marshall, and James Madison.
4-4.5 Compare the social and economic policies of the two political parties that were formed in America in the 1790s.
4-5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of westward expansion of the United States and its impact on the institution of slavery.
The new century saw the United States transformed by exponential growth through land acquisitions in the West. This expansion resulted in harm to Native Americans and continued the debate on the "peculiar institution" of slavery. To understand the impact of westward expansion on the United States as a whole, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
4-5.1 Summarize the major expeditions that played a role in westward expansion including those of Daniel Boone, Lewis and Clark, and Zebulon Pike.
4-5.2 Explain the motivations and methods of migrants and immigrants, who moved West, including economic opportunities, the availability of rich land, and the country's belief in Manifest Destiny.
4-5.3 Explain the purpose, location, and impact of key United States acquisitions in the first half of the nineteenth century, including the Louisiana Purchase, the Florida Purchase, the Oregon Treaty, the annexation of Texas, and the Mexican Cession.
4-5.4 Summarize how territorial expansion, related land policies, and specific legislation affected Native Americans, including the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
4-5.5 Explain how the Missouri Compromise, the fugitive slave laws, the annexation of Texas, the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision affected the institution of slavery in the United States and its territories.
4-6 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes, the course, and the effects of the American Civil War.
Regional economic interests led to social and political differences that seemed insurmountable by 1860. To understand why the United States was forced to settle sectional differences through civil war, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
4-6.1 Explain the significant economic and geographic differences between the North and South.
4-6.2 Explain the contributions of abolitionists to the mounting tensions between the North and South over slavery, including William Lloyd Garrison, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and John Brown.
4-6.4 Summarize significant battles, strategies, and turning points of the Civil War, including the battles of Fort Sumter and Gettysburg, the Emancipation Proclamation, the role of African Americans in the war, the surrender at Appomattox, and the assassination of President Lincoln.