P.2 Physical Science: Classification and Conservation of Matter
7.P.2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and properties of matter and that matter is conserved as it undergoes changes.
7.P.2A All substances are composed of one or more elements. Elements are pure substances which contain only one kind of atom. The periodic table organizes these elements based on similar properties. Compounds are substances composed of two or more elements. Chemical formulas can be used to describe compounds.
7.P.2A.1 Develop and use simple atomic models to illustrate the components of elements (including the relative position and charge of protons, neutrons, and electrons).
7.P.2A.4 Construct explanations for how compounds are classified as ionic (metal bonded to nonmetal) or covalent (nonmetals bonded together) using chemical formulas.
7.P.2B Substances (such as metals or acids) are identified according to their physical or chemical properties. Changes to substances can either be physical or chemical. Many substances react chemically with other substances to form new substances with different properties. According to the law of conservation of matter, total mass does not change in a chemical reaction.
7.P.2B.1 Analyze and interpret data to describe substances using physical properties (including state, boiling/melting point, density, conductivity, color, hardness, and magnetic properties) and chemical properties (the ability to burn or rust).
7.P.2B.3 Analyze and interpret data to compare the physical properties, chemical properties (neutralization to form a salt, reaction with metals), and pH of various solutions and classify solutions as acids or bases.
7.P.2B.4 Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions about how physical and chemical changes affect the properties of different substances.
7.L.3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the levels of organization within organisms support the essential functions of life.
7.L.3A Cells are the most basic unit of any living organism. All organisms are composed of one (unicellular) or many cells (multicellular) and require food and water, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which they can live in order to survive. Through the use of technology, scientists have discovered special structures within individual cells that have specific functions that allow the cell to grow, survive, and reproduce. Bacteria are one-celled organisms found almost everywhere and can be both helpful and harmful. They can be simply classified by their size, shape and whether or not they can move.
7.L.3A.1 Obtain and communicate information to support claims that
7.L.3A.1.1 organisms are made of one or more cells,
7.L.3A.3 Develop and use models to explain how the relevant structures within cells (including cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and vacuoles) function to support the life of plant, animal, and bacterial cells.
7.L.3A.4 Construct scientific arguments to support claims that bacteria are both helpful and harmful to other organisms and the environment.
7.L.3B Multicellular organisms (including humans) are complex systems with specialized cells that perform specific functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells that function to serve the needs of cells which in turn serve the needs of the organism.
7.L.3B.1 Develop and use models to explain how the structural organizations within multicellular organisms function to serve the needs of the organism.
7.L.3B.2 Construct explanations for how systems in the human body (including circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems) work together to support the essential life functions of the body.
L.4 Life Science: Heredity – Inheritance and Variation of Traits
7.L.4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of how genetic information is transferred from parent to offspring and how environmental factors and the use of technologies influence the transfer of genetic information.
7.L.4A Inheritance is the key process causing similarities between parental organisms and their offspring. Organisms that reproduce sexually transfer genetic information (DNA) to their offspring. This transfer of genetic information through inheritance leads to greater similarity among individuals within a population than between populations. Technology allows humans to influence the transfer of genetic information.
7.L.4A.1 Obtain and communicate information about the relationship between genes and chromosomes to construct explanations of their relationship to inherited characteristics.
7.L.4A.3 Develop and use models (Punnett squares) to describe and predict patterns of the inheritance of single genetic traits from parent to offspring (including dominant and recessive traits, incomplete dominance, and codominance).
7.L.4A.6 Construct scientific arguments using evidence to support claims concerning the advantages and disadvantages of the use of technology (such as selective breeding, genetic engineering, or biomedical research) in influencing the transfer of genetic information.
EC.5 Ecology: Interactions of Living Systems and the Environment
7.EC.5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of how organisms interact with and respond to the biotic and abiotic components of their environments.
7.EC.5A In all ecosystems, organisms and populations of organisms depend on their environmental interactions with other living things (biotic factors) and with physical (abiotic) factors (such as light, temperature, water, or soil quality). Disruptions to any component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in its diversity and abundance of populations
7.EC.5A.1 Develop and use models to describe the characteristics of the levels of organization within ecosystems (including species, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes).
7.EC.5A.2 Construct explanations of how soil quality (including composition, texture, particle size, permeability, and pH) affects the characteristics of an ecosystem using evidence from soil profiles.
7.EC.5A.3 Analyze and interpret data to predict changes in the number of organisms within a population when certain changes occur to the physical environment (such as changes due to natural hazards or limiting factors).
7.EC.5B Organisms in all ecosystems interact with and depend up on each other. Organisms with similar needs compete for limited resources. Food webs and energy pyramids are models that demonstrate how energy is transferred within an ecosystem.
7.EC.5B.1 Develop and use models to explain how organisms interact in a competitive or mutually beneficial relationship for food, shelter, or space (including competition, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and predator-prey relationships).