7-1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the growth and impact of global trade on world civilizations after 1600.
European expansion during the 1600s and 1700s was often driven by economic and technological forces. To understand the influence of these forces, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
7-1.1 Compare the colonial claims and the expansion of European powers through 1770.
7-1.4 Analyze the beginnings of capitalism and the ways that it was affected by mercantilism, the developing market economy, international trade, and the rise of the middle class.
7-1.5 Compare the differing ways that European nations developed political and economic influences, including trade and settlement patterns, on the continents of Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
7-2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of limited government and unlimited government as they functioned in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
The relationship between citizens and their government is a fundamental component of political rule. To understand the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection of individual rights, and the promotion of the common good by government, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
7-2.1 Analyze the characteristics of limited government and unlimited government that evolved in Europe in the 1600s and 1700s.
7-2.2 Explain how the scientific revolution challenged authority and influenced Enlightenment philosophers, including the importance of the use of reason, the challenges to the Catholic Church, and the contributions of Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.
7-2.4 Explain the effects of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on the power of the monarchy in England and on limited government.
7-2.5 Explain how the Enlightenment influenced the American and French revolutions leading to the formation of limited forms of government, including the relationship between people and their government, the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection of individual rights, and the promotion of the common good.
7-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.
The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
7-3.1 Explain the causes, key events, and outcomes of the French Revolution, including the storming of the Bastille, the Reign of Terror, and Napoleon's rise to power.
7-3.2 Analyze the effects of the Napoleonic Wars on the development and spread of nationalism in Europe, including the Congress of Vienna, the revolutionary movements of 1830 and 1848, and the unification of Germany and Italy.
7-3.3 Explain how the Haitian, Mexican, and South American revolutions were influenced by Enlightenment ideas as well as by the spread of nationalism and the revolutionary movements in the United States and Europe.
7-3.4 Explain how the Industrial Revolution caused economic, cultural, and political changes around the world.
7-3.5 Analyze the ways that industrialization contributed to imperialism in India, Japan, China, and African regions, including the need for new markets and raw materials, the Open Door Policy, and the Berlin Conference of 1884.
7-3.6 Explain reactions to imperialism that resulted from growing nationalism, including the Zulu wars, the Sepoy Rebellion, the Opium Wars, the Boxer Rebellion, and the Meiji Restoration.
7-3.7 Explain the causes and effects of the Spanish-American War as a reflection of American imperialist interests, including acquisitions, military occupations, and status as an emerging world power.
7-4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.
The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To understand the effects these events had on the modern world, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
7-4.1 Explain the causes and course of World War I, including militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the impact of Russia's withdrawal from, and the United States entry into the war.
7-4.4 Compare the ideologies of socialism, communism, fascism, and Nazism and their influence on the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I in Italy, Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union as a response to the worldwide depression.
7-4.5 Summarize the causes and course of World War II, including drives for empire, appeasement and isolationism, the invasion of Poland, the Battle of Britain, the invasion of the Soviet Union, the "Final Solution," the Lend-Lease program, Pearl Harbor, Stalingrad, the campaigns in North Africa and the Mediterranean, the D-Day invasion, the island-hopping campaigns, and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
7-4.6 Analyze the Holocaust and its impact on European society and Jewish culture, including Nazi policies to eliminate the Jews and other minorities, the Nuremberg trials, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the rise of nationalism in Southwest Asia (Middle East), the creation of the state of Israel, and the resultant conflicts in the region.
7-5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of international developments during the Cold War era.
Events during the Cold War affected the world politically, socially, and economically. To understand the significance of the Cold War, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
7-5.1 Compare the political and economic ideologies of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
7-5.2 Summarize the impact of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the United Nations, and the Warsaw Pact on the course of the Cold War.
7-5.3 Explain the spread of communism in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America, including the ideas of the satellite state containment, and the domino theory.
7-5.4 Analyze the political and technological competition between the Soviet Union and the United States for global influence, including the Korean Conflict, the Berlin Wall, the Vietnam War, the Cuban missile crisis, the "space race," and the threat of nuclear annihilation.
7-5.5 Analyze the events that contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and other communist governments in Europe, including the growth of resistance movements in Eastern Europe, the policies of Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan, and the failures of communist economic systems.
7-6 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the significant political, economic, geographic, scientific, technological, and cultural changes as well as the advancements that have taken place throughout the world from the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to the present day.
Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the world's attention no longer focuses on the tension between superpowers. Although problems rooted in the Middle East have captured the world's attention more consistently than the majority of current issues, other concerns have moved to the forefront as well. To understand the modern world, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators:
7-6.1 Summarize the political and social impact of the collapse/dissolution of the Soviet Union and subsequent changes to European borders, including those of Russia and the Independent Republics, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia; the breakup of Yugoslavia; the reunification of Germany; and the birth of the European Union (EU).
7-6.2 Compare features of nationalist and independence movements in different regions in the post–World War II period, including Mohandas Gandhi's role in the non-violence movement for India's independence, the emergence of nationalist movements in African and Asian countries, and the collapse of the apartheid system in South Africa.
7-6.3 Explain the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East, including the Persian Gulf War, the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
7-6.4 Compare the social, economic, and political opportunities for women in various nations and societies around the world, including those in developing and industrialized nations and within societies dominated by religions.
7-6.5 Explain the significance and impact of the information, technological, and communications revolutions, including the role of television, satellites, computers, and the Internet.
7-6.6 Summarize the dangers to the natural environment that are posed by population growth, urbanization, and industrialization, including global influences on the environment and the efforts by citizens and governments to protect the natural environment.