Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Working with quantities and the relationships between them provides grounding for work with expressions, equations, and functions.
N.Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
A.SSE.1.b Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity.
A.CED Creating Equations
Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Limit these to linear equations and inequalities, and exponential equations. In the case of exponential equations, limit to situations requiring evaluation of exponential functions at integer inputs.
A.CED.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and simple exponential functions.
Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.
A.REI.1 Explain each step in solving a linear equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. Students will solve exponential equations with logarithms in Secondary Mathematics III.
Solve systems of equations. Build on student experiences graphing and solving systems of linear equations from middle school. Include cases where the two equations describe the same line—yielding infinitely many solutions—and cases where two equations describe parallel lines—yielding no solution; connect to GPE.5, which requires students to prove the slope criteria for parallel lines.
A.REI.5 Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.
A.REI.11 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately; e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear and exponential functions.
A.REI.12 Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a halfplane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.
F.IF Interpreting Linear and Exponential Functions
Understand the concept of a linear or exponential function and use function notation. Recognize arithmetic and geometric sequences as examples of linear and exponential functions.
F.IF.1 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).
F.IF.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. Recognize arithmetic and geometric sequences as examples of linear and exponential functions.
Interpret linear or exponential functions that arise in applications in terms of a context.
F.IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; and end behavior.
F.IF.9 Compare properties of two functions, each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, compare the growth of two linear functions, or two exponential functions such as y=3n and y=100×2n.
F.BF.1.b Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations.
F.BF.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. Limit F.BF.1a, 1b, and 2 to linear and exponential functions. Connect arithmetic sequences to linear functions and geometric sequences to exponential functions.
F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Relate the vertical translation of a linear function to its y-intercept. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology.
F.LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).
Build on student experience with rigid motions from earlier grades.
G.CO.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.
G.CO.2 Represent transformations in the plane using, for example, transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).
G.CO.5 Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, for example, graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. Point out the basis of rigid motions in geometric concepts, for example, translations move points a specified distance along a line parallel to a specified line; rotations move objects along a circular arc with a specified center through a specified angle.
Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions. Rigid motions are at the foundation of the definition of congruence. Reason from the basic properties of rigid motions (that they preserve distance and angle), which are assumed without proof. Rigid motions and their assumed properties can be used to establish the usual triangle congruence criteria, which can then be used to prove other theorems.
G.CO.6 Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide whether they are congruent.
G.CO.12 Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Emphasize the ability to formalize and defend how these constructions result in the desired objects.
G.GPE.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines; use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).
S.ID.3 Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). Calculate the weighted average of a distribution and interpret it as a measure of center.
Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables.
S.ID.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
S.ID.6.a Fit a linear function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions, or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear and exponential models.