3 Examine how systems of governance began steps toward self-rule during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
a Examine relationships between significant events and ideas and their influence on systems of government (e.g., the rise of the merchant class, the Magna Carta, the impact of the Black Death, Germanic tribes, feudalism, manors, city-states).
b Compare individual rights of people in the United States today with the rights of selected groups in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (e.g., serfs, nobility, merchant class).
4 Explain the importance of the Renaissance as a rebirth of cultural and intellectual pursuits.
a Investigate how technological and scientific developments of the time promoted literacy and the exchange of ideas that continue to this day (e.g., moveable type, telescope, microscope).
b Identify leading Renaissance artists and thinkers and their contributions to visual arts, writing, music, and architecture (e.g., Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Palestrina, Shakespeare, Tallis)