L.11-12.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
L.11-12.3.a Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte's Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
L.11-12.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
L.11-12.4.a Determine meanings of unfamiliar words by using knowledge of derivational roots and affixes, including cultural derivations (e.g., the root of photography and photosynthesis; kayak), context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence), dialectical English (e.g., Huck Finn), idiomatic expressions (e.g., "it drives me up a wall") as clues to the meaning of a word or phrase.
L.11-12.4.c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
L.11-12.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.