8.NS.A Understand that there are irrational numbers, and approximate them using rational numbers.
8.NS.A.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion. Know that numbers whose decimal expansions do not terminate in zeros or in a repeating sequence of fixed digits are called irrational.
8.NS.A.3 Understand that given any two distinct rational numbers, a < b, there exist a rational number c and an irrational number d such that a < c < b and a < d < b. Given any two distinct irrational numbers, a < b, there exist a rational number c and an irrational number d such that a < c < b and a < d < b.
8.EE Expressions and Equations
8.EE.A Work with radicals and integer exponents.
8.EE.A.1 Understand and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions.
8.EE.A.3 Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and express how many times larger or smaller one is than the other.
8.EE.A.4 Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities.
8.EE.B.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane. Derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at (0, b).
8.EE.C Analyze and solve linear equations, inequalities, and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
8.EE.C.7 Fluently solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable.
8.EE.C.7.a Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solution. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
8.EE.C.8 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
8.EE.C.8.a Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
8.EE.C.8.b Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations including cases of no solution and infinite number of solutions. Solve simple cases by inspection.
8.F.A.1 Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in Grade 8.)
8.F.B Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
8.F.B.4 Given a description of a situation, generate a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or a graph. Track how the values of the two quantities change together. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, its graph, or its table of values.
8.F.B.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.
8.G.A.1 Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations. Properties include: lines are taken to lines, line segments are taken to line segments of the same length, angles are taken to angles of the same measure, parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.
8.G.A.2 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that demonstrates congruence.
8.G.A.4 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if, and only if, one can be obtained from the other by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that demonstrates similarity.
8.G.A.5 Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles.
8.SP.A Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
8.SP.A.1 Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate and describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
8.SP.A.2 Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
8.SP.A.4 Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables.