PS1-MS-1.PS1.A.ii Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals).
PS1-MS-1.PS1.B Chemical Reactions
PS1-MS-1.PS1.B.i Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
PS1-MS-3.PS1.B.i Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
PS1-MS-4.PS1.A.ii In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations.
PS1-MS-4.PS3.A.i The term "heat" as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules with in a substance) and the transfer of that thermal energy from one object to another. In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it refers to the energy transferred due to the temperature difference between two objects.
PS1-MS-5 Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.
PS1-MS-5.PS1.B Chemical Reactions
PS1-MS-5.PS1.B.i Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
PS1-MS-6.PS3.A.i The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system's material). The details of that relationship depend on the type of atom or molecule and the interactions among the atoms in the material. Temperature is not a direct measure of a system's total thermal energy. The total thermal energy (sometimes called total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material.
PS1-MS-6.ETS1.B.ii The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
PS2-MS Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
PS2-MS-1 Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
PS2-MS-1.PS2.A Forces and Motion
PS2-MS-1.PS2.A.i For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton's third law).
PS2-MS-2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
PS2-MS-2.PS2.A Forces and Motion
PS2-MS-2.PS2.A.i The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion.
PS2-MS-2.PS2.A.ii All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared.
PS2-MS-3 Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
PS2-MS-3.PS2.B Types of Interactions
PS2-MS-3.PS2.B.i Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects.
PS2-MS-4 Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
PS2-MS-4.PS2.B Types of Interactions
PS2-MS-4.PS2.B.i Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass-e.g., Earth and the sun.
PS2-MS-5 Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.
PS2-MS-5.PS2.B Types of Interactions
PS2-MS-5.PS2.B.i Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively).
PS3-MS-1 Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.
PS3-MS-1.PS3.A Definitions of Energy
PS3-MS-1.PS3.A.i Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed.
PS3-MS-2.PS3.C Relationship Between Energy and Forces
PS3-MS-2.PS3.C.i When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object.
PS3-MS-3 Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
PS3-MS-3.PS3.A Definitions of Energy
PS3-MS-3.PS3.A.i Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS3-MS-3.ETS1.A Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem
PS3-MS-3.ETS1.A.i The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.
PS3-MS-3.ETS1.B Developing Possible Solutions
PS3-MS-3.ETS1.B.i A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.
PS3-MS-4 Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
PS3-MS-4.PS3.A Definitions of Energy
PS3-MS-4.PS3.A.i Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS4-MS-2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.A Wave Properties
PS4-MS-2.PS4.A.i A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B Electromagnetic Radiation
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B.i When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object's material and the frequency (color) of the light.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B.ii The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B.iii A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequency-dependent bending of light at a surface between media.
PS4-MS-2.PS4.B.iv However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves.
PS4-MS-3 Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals.
PS4-MS-3.PS4.C Information Technologies and Instrumentation
PS4-MS-3.PS4.C.i Digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information.