PS1-4-1 Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.
PS1-4-1.PS3.A Definitions of Energy
PS1-4-1.PS3.A.i The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses.
PS1-4-2 Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
PS1-4-2.PS3.A Definitions of Energy
PS1-4-2.PS3.A.i Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents.
PS1-4-2.PS3.B Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS1-4-2.PS3.B.i Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced.
PS1-4-2.PS3.B.ii Light also transfers energy from place to place.
PS1-4-2.PS3.B.iii Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy.
PS1-4-3 Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
PS1-4-3.PS3.A Definitions of Energy
PS1-4-3.PS3.A.i Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents.
PS1-4-3.PS3.B Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS1-4-3.PS3.B.i Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced.
PS1-4-3.PS3.C Relationship Between Energy and Forces
PS1-4-3.PS3.C.i When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects' motions.
PS1-4-4 Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.
PS1-4-4.PS3.B Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS1-4-4.PS3.B.i Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy.
PS1-4-4.PS3.D Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
PS1-4-4.PS3.D.i The expression "produce energy" typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use.
PS1-4-4.ETS1.A Defining Engineering Problems
PS1-4-4.ETS1.A.i Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account.
PS2-4-1 Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move.
PS2-4-1.PS4.A Wave Properties
PS2-4-1.PS4.A.i Waves, which are regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by disturbing the surface. When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up and down in place; there is no net motion in the direction of the wave except when the water meets a beach.
PS2-4-1.PS4.A.ii Waves of the same type can differ in amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks).
PS2-4-2 Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.
PS2-4-2.PS4.B Electromagnetic Radiation
PS2-4-2.PS4.B.i An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.
PS2-4-3 Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.
PS2-4-3.PS4.C Information Technologies and Instrumentation
PS2-4-3.PS4.C.i Digitized information can be transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High-tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can receive and decode information-convert it from digitized form to voice-and vice versa.
PS2-4-3.ETS1.C Optimizing the Design Solution
PS2-4-3.ETS1.C.i Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints.
LS Life Sciences
LS1-4 Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes
LS1-4-1 Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
LS1-4-1.LS1.A Structure and Function
LS1-4-1.LS1.A.i Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction.
LS1-4-2 Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways.
LS1-4-2.LS1.D Information Processing
LS1-4-2.LS1.D.i Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may be then processed by the animal's brain. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions.
LS2-4 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
LS2-4-1 Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
LS2-4-1.LS2.A Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
LS2-4-1.LS2.A.i The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and animals) and therefore operate as "decomposers." Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem.
LS2-4-1.LS2.B Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
LS2-4-1.LS2.B.i Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, and water, from the environment, and release waste matter (gas, liquid, or solid) back into the environment.
ESS Earth and Space Sciences
ESS1-4 Earth's Place in the Universe
ESS1-4-1 Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers for changes in a landscape over time to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
ESS1-4-1.ESS1.C The History of Planet Earth
ESS1-4-1.ESS1.C.i Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to earth forces, such as earthquakes. The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed.
ESS2-4-1 Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
ESS2-4-1.ESS2.A Earth Materials and Systems
ESS2-4-1.ESS2.A.i Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.
ESS2-4-1.ESS2.E.i Living things affect the physical characteristics of their regions.
ESS2-4-2 Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth's features.
ESS2-4-2.ESS2.B Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions
ESS2-4-2.ESS2.B.i The locations of mountain ranges, deep ocean trenches, ocean floor structures, earthquakes, and volcanoes occur in patterns. Most earthquakes and volcanoes occur in bands that are often along the boundaries between continents and oceans. Major mountain chains form inside continents or near their edges. Maps can help locate the different land and water features areas of Earth.