11-12.W.1 Write routinely over a variety of time frames for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences; apply reading standards to support analysis, reflection, and research by drawing evidence from literature and nonfiction texts.
Writing Genres: Argumentative, Informative, and Narrative
11-12.W.3.1 Write arguments in a variety of forms that
11-12.W.3.1a Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
11-12.W.3.1b Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
11-12.W.3.1c Use effective transitions as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
11-12.W.3.1e Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
11-12.W.3.2 Write informative compositions in a variety of forms that
11-12.W.3.2a Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
11-12.W.3.2b Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
11-12.W.3.2d Choose language, content-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.
11-12.W.3.2f Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
11-12.W.3.3 Write narrative compositions in a variety of forms that
11-12.W.3.3a Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters.
11-12.W.3.3b Create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
11-12.W.3.3c Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
11-12.W.3.3d Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
11-12.W.3.3e Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
11-12.W.3.3f Provide an ending that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
The Writing Process
11-12.W.4 Apply the writing process to
11-12.W.4a Plan and develop; draft; revise using appropriate reference materials; rewrite; try a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience; and edit to produce and strengthen writing that is clear and coherent.