5.6 Create and use geographic representations to locate and describe places and geographic characteristics, including hemispheres; landforms such as continents, oceans, rivers, mountains, deserts; cardinal and intermediate directions; latitude and longitude, climate, and environment.
5.13 Describe the geographic, political, economic, and cultural structures of Indigenous civilizations of the Americas.
5.13.a Identify and locate the geographic features of the Americas, including the Andes Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Great Plains, Pacific Ocean Mountains, Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains, Atlantic Ocean, Mississippi River, Amazon River, South America, Caribbean Sea, North America, Yucatan Peninsula, and the Central Mexican Plateau.
5.14.b Identify the significance of the voyages and routes of discovery of the following explorers by their sponsoring country: England: Henry Hudson; France: Jacques Cartier; Portugal: Vasco da Gama, Bartolomeu Dias; Spain: Christopher Columbus, Hernando de Soto, Ferdinand Magellan, and Amerigo Vespucci.
5.14.d Describe how the Aztec and Inca empires were eventually defeated by Spanish conquistadors.
5.14.e Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on people, plants, animals, technology, culture, ideas, and diseases among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and examine the major effects on each continent.