6.4 Use geographic representations and historical data to analyze events and developments in U.S. history from 1580 to 1791, including environmental, cultural, economic, and political characteristics and changes.
6.8 Analyze European exploration and colonization of North America.
6.8.a Explain the significance of the land claims made in North America by European powers after 1600, including England, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, and Sweden and their effects on Native Americans.
6.8.b Compare and contrast the motivations, challenges, and achievements related to exploration and settlement of North America by the British, Dutch, French, and Spanish, including the search for wealth, freedom, and a new life.
6.9 Analyze the development of the settlements and colonies in the late sixteenth century through the seventeenth century.
6.9.a Explain the importance of the founding and development of Jamestown, including representative government established through the House of Burgesses, private ownership of land, introduction of slavery, and arrival of women and families.
6.9.b Explain the importance of the founding and development of the Plymouth settlement, including practice of self-government established by the Mayflower Compact, religious freedom, and contributions of Native Americans, including Chief Massasoit and Squanto, the leadership of William Bradford.
6.9.d Explain the contributions of key individuals and groups to the foundation of the colonies, including Pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers, John Smith, Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, William Penn, Edward Winslow, William Bradford, John Winthrop, John Rolfe, and Pocahontas.
6.9.f Analyze the causes, interactions, and consequences related to triangular trade, including the forced migration of Africans through the transatlantic trade of enslaved people and experiences of the Middle Passage.
6.9.g Explain the experiences and perspectives of various people groups living in colonial North America, including large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, children, indentured servants, enslaved people, and Native Americans.
6.9.h Analyze cooperation, competition, and conflict among groups in North America from the late 1500s to the mid-1700s, including Dutch, English, French, Spanish, and Native Americans including the 1621 Autumn Harvest Celebration, French and Native American trade of fur, Bacon's Rebellion, and King Philip's (Metacom) War.
6.10 Analyze the growth and development of colonial Louisiana.
6.10.a Explain the significance of events that influenced pre-colonial and colonial Louisiana, including the founding of Natchitoches and New Orleans, the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso.
6.10.b Describe the factors that influenced migration within and to Louisiana by various groups, including French, Spanish, Africans, Acadians, Germans, Canary Islanders/Islenos, and Haitians, and explain how individuals and groups interacted and contributed to the development of Louisiana.
6.10.c Describe the characteristics of colonial Louisiana, including physical geography, climate, economic activities, culture and customs, and government, and analyze their importance to the growth and development of Louisiana.
6.10.d Explain the influence of France and Spain on government in Louisiana, with an emphasis on the Napoleonic Code, the Code Noir, and the contributions of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, John Law, King Louis XIV, and Alejandro O'Reilly.
6.10.e Describe the contributions and achievements of Gens de Couleur Libres in colonial Louisiana.
6.10.f Compare and contrast French and Spanish colonial Louisiana and colonial Louisiana and British colonies.
6.11 Analyze the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution.
6.11.a Analyze the historical and religious factors that influenced the development of government in the United States, including those from ancient Greece; the Roman Republic; the Judeo-Christian tradition; English rule of law and the Magna Carta; Enlightenment philosophies; and the Great Awakening.
6.11.c Analyze the role and importance of key events and developments leading to the American Revolution, including end of Salutary Neglect by King George III, French and Indian War, Proclamation of 1763, Acts of 1764–1773 (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act), Boston Massacre and the death of Crispus Attucks, Boston Tea Party, Coercive (Intolerable) Acts, First Continental Congress, Restraining Acts, the seizure of firearms, and Second Continental Congress.
6.11.d Explain how key ideas expressed in historical works influenced the American Revolution, including "taxation without representation is tyranny" (John Otis), John Dickinson's Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, Patrick Henry's "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death" speech, Thomas Paine's Common Sense, and the Declaration of Independence: "all men are created equal, … endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, … among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness," and "the consent of the governed."
6.11.e Explain efforts to mobilize support for the American Revolution by individuals and groups, including the Minutemen and Committees of Correspondence and Sons of Liberty (Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Paul Revere).
6.11.g Compare and contrast the American colonies and British in the American Revolution, including leadership, military power, recruitment, alliances, population, and resources, and evaluate their strengths and weaknesses.
6.11.h Explain the significance and outcome of key battles and turning points during the American Revolution, including the Battles of Lexington and Concord (1775), creation of the Continental Army and appointment of George Washington as Commander in Chief (1775), Battles of Trenton and Princeton (1776–1777), Battle of Saratoga (1777), encampment at Valley Forge (1777–1778), Franco-American alliance (1778), Battle of Yorktown (1781), and the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
6.11.i Explain the contributions of women to the American Revolution, including those of Abigail Adams, Mercy Otis-Warren, Mary Ludwig Hays, Deborah Sampson, Phillis Wheatley, and Betsy Ross.
6.11.j Explain the role of Spain and Spanish colonial Louisiana during the American Revolution and effects of the conflict on the colony, including the roles of Bernardo de Galvez, Battle of Lake Pontchartrain (1779), and Battle of Baton Rouge (1779).
6.11.k Explain the role of espionage during the American Revolution, including the actions of spies for the colonies (Nathan Hale, Culper Spy Ring, John Clark, Enoch Crosby, Nancy Hart, and James Armistead Lafayette) and spies for Britain (Benedict Arnold).
6.12.b Describe the development of various state Constitutions, and the effects of early abolitionists on the development of state government, including Olaudah Equiano, Benjamin Banneker, and Elizabeth Freeman.
6.12.d Evaluate the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention, including the key characteristics and features of the Articles of Confederation, the division and sharing of power between the federal and state governments (federal system), the Great Compromise, and slavery (Three-Fifths Compromise).
6.12.e Explain how the ideas of leading figures and Founding Fathers contributed to the Constitutional Convention and development of the U.S. government, including John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Mason, William Patterson, Roger Sherman, George Washington, and James Wilson.
6.12.i Explain how and why the Constitution of the United States was amended to include the Bill of Rights, and analyze the guarantees of civil rights and individual liberties protected in each of the first ten amendments.
6.12.j Analyze the key principles of government established by the Constitution of the United States, including federalism (enumerated, reserved, and concurrent powers), individual rights, judicial review, limited government, popular sovereignty and consent of the governed, rule of law, separation of powers, and a system of checks and balances.
6.12.k Explain the structure and processes of the United States government as outlined in the Constitution of the United States, including the branches of government, how a bill becomes a law at the federal level, and the process for amending the United States Constitution.
6.12.l Explain the structure, powers, and functions of the branches of the United States federal government (legislative, executive, and judicial), and describe the qualifications, roles, and responsibilities of elected and appointed government officials.