5-ESS1-1 Use observations, first-hand and from various media, to argue that the Sun is a star that appears larger and brighter than other stars because it is closer to Earth.
Other factors that affect apparent brightness (such as stellar masses, age, or stage) are not expected in state assessment.
5-ESS1-2 Use a model to communicate Earth's relationship to the Sun, Moon, and other stars that explain (a) why people on Earth experience day and night, (b) patterns in daily changes in length and direction of shadows over a day, and (c) changes in the apparent position of the Sun, Moon, and stars at different times during a day, over a month, and over a year.
Causes of lunar phases or seasons, or use of Earth's tilt are not expected in state assessment.
5-ESS2 Earth's Systems
5-ESS2-1 Use a model to describe the cycling of water through a watershed through evaporation, precipitation, absorption, surface runoff, and condensation.
Transpiration or explanations of mechanisms that drive the cycle are not expected in state assessment.
5-ESS2-2 Describe and graph the relative amounts of salt water in the ocean; fresh water in lakes, rivers, and ground water; and fresh water frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps to provide evidence about the availability of fresh water in Earth's biosphere.
Inclusion of the atmosphere is not expected in state assessment.
5-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity
5-ESS3-1 Obtain and combine information about ways communities reduce human impact on the Earth's resources and environment by changing an agricultural, industrial, or community practice or process.
The chemical formula or molecular details about the process of photosynthesis are not expected in state assessment.
5-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
5-LS2-1 Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among producers, consumers, decomposers, and the air, water, and soil in the environment to (a) show that plants produce sugars and plant materials, (b) show that animals can eat plants and/or other animals for food, and (c) show that some organisms, including fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms and recycle some materials back to the air and soil.
Atomic-scale mechanisms of evaporation and condensation or defining unseen particles are not expected in state assessment.
5-PS1-2 Measure and graph the weights (masses) of substances before and after a reaction or phase change to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or combining substances, the total weight (mass) of matter is conserved.
Distinguishing mass and weight is not expected in state assessment.
5-PS1-3 Make observations and measurements of substances to describe characteristic properties of each, including color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, and solubility.
Mathematical representations of gravitational force are not expected in state assessment.
5-PS3-1 Use a model to describe that the food animals digest (a) contains energy that was once energy from the sun, and (b) provides energy and nutrients for life processes, including body repair, growth, motion, body warmth, and reproduction.