1 Democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
18.104.22.168.1 Evaluate arguments about selected issues from diverse perspectives and frames of reference, noting the strengths, weaknesses and consequences associated with the decision made on each issue.
22.214.171.124.2 Use graphic data to analyze information about a public issue in state or local government.
126.96.36.199.3 Address a state or local policy issue by identifying key opposing positions, determining conflicting values and beliefs, defending and justifying a position with evidence, and developing strategies to persuade others to adopt this position.
3 Rights and Responsibilities
4 Individuals in a republic have rights, duties and responsibilities.
188.8.131.52.1 Describe the establishment and expansion of rights over time, including the impact of key court cases, state legislation and constitutional amendments.
5 Citizenship and its rights and duties are established by law.
184.108.40.206.1 Define citizenship in the United States and explain that individuals become citizens by birth or naturalization.
4 Governmental Institutions and Political Processes
6 The United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
220.127.116.11.1 Explain the relationship among the three branches of government: making laws by the legislative branch, implementing and enforcing laws by the executive branch, and interpreting laws by the judicial branch.
18.104.22.168.3 Identify the purpose of Minnesota's Constitution; explain how the Minnesota Constitution organizes government and protects rights.
22.214.171.124.4 Identify the major state and local (county, city, school board, township) governmental offices; describe the primary duties associated with them.
126.96.36.199.5 Describe how laws are created; explain the differences between civil and criminal law; give examples of federal, state and local laws.
188.8.131.52.6 Describe the goals, offenses, penalties, long-term consequences, and privacy concerns of Minnesota's juvenile justice system.
184.108.40.206.7 Compare and contrast the basic structures, functions and ways of funding state and local governments.
5 Relationships of the U.S. to Other Nations and Organizations
10 The United States establishes and maintains relationships and interacts with indigenous nations and other sovereign nations, and plays a key role in world affairs.
220.127.116.11.1 Explain the concept of sovereignty and how treaty rights are exercised by the Anishinaabe and Dakota today.
1 Economic Reasoning Skills
1 People make informed economic choices by identifying their goals, interpreting and applying data, considering the short- and long-run costs and benefits of alternative choices and revising their goals based on their analysis.
18.104.22.168.1 Create a budget based on a given monthly income, real-world expenses, and personal preferences, including enough savings to meet an identified future savings goal.
2 Personal Finance
2 Personal and financial goals can be achieved by applying economic concepts and principles to personal financial planning, budgeting, spending, saving, investing, borrowing and insuring decisions.
22.214.171.124.1 Describe various types of income including wage, rent, interest and profit; explain the role that the development of human capital plays in determining one's income.
4 Microeconomic Concepts
5 Individuals, businesses and governments interact and exchange goods, services and resources in different ways and for different reasons; interactions between buyers and sellers in a market determines the price and quantity exchanged of a good, service or resource.
126.96.36.199.1 Describe the movement of goods and services, resources and money through markets in a market-based economy.
8 Market failures occur when markets fail to allocate resources efficiently or meet other goals, and this often leads to government attempts to correct the problem.
188.8.131.52.1 Explain why federal and state governments regulate economic activity to promote public well-being.
1 Geospatial Skills
1 People use geographic representations and geospatial technologies to acquire, process and report information within a spatial context.
184.108.40.206.1 Create and use various kinds of maps, including overlaying thematic maps, of places in Minnesota; incorporate the "TODALSS" map basics, as well as points, lines and colored areas to display spatial information.
3 Human Systems
6 Geographic factors influence the distribution, functions, growth and patterns of cities and other human settlements.
220.127.116.11.1 Locate, identify and describe major physical features in Minnesota; explain how physical features and the location of resources affect settlement patterns and the growth of cities in different parts of Minnesota.
4 Human Environment Interaction
10 The meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources changes over time.
18.104.22.168.1 Describe how land was used during different time periods in Minnesota history; explain how and why land use has changed over time.
1 Historical Thinking Skills
2 Historical inquiry is a process in which multiple sources and different kinds of historical evidence are analyzed to draw conclusions about what happened in the past, and how and why it happened.
22.214.171.124.1 Pose questions about a topic in Minnesota history, gather a variety of primary and secondary sources related to questions, analyze sources for credibility, identify possible answers, use evidence to draw conclusions, and present supported findings.
4 United States History
15 North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent.
126.96.36.199.1 Compare and contrast the Dakota and Anishinaabe nations prior to 1800; describe their interactions with each other and other indigenous peoples.
16 Rivalries among European nations and their search for new opportunities fueled expanding global trade networks and, in North America, colonization and settlement and the exploitation of indigenous peoples and lands; colonial development evoked varied responses by indigenous nations, and produced regional societies and economies that included imported slave labor and distinct forms of local government.
188.8.131.52.1 Describe European exploration, competition and trade in the upper Mississippi River region; describe varied interactions between Minnesota's indigenous peoples and Europeans in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
18 Economic expansion and the conquest of indigenous and Mexican territory spurred the agricultural and industrial growth of the United States; led to increasing regional, economic and ethnic divisions; and inspired multiple reform movements.
184.108.40.206.1 Describe how and why the United States claimed and settled the upper Mississippi River region in the early nineteenth century; explain the impact of steamboat transportation and settlement on the physical, social and cultural landscapes.
220.127.116.11.2 Analyze how and why the United States and the Dakota and Anishinaabe negotiated treaties; describe the consequences of treaties on the Anishinaabe, Dakota and settlers in the upper Mississippi River region.
18.104.22.168.3 Describe the process of how Minnesota became a territory and state; identify the key events, individuals and groups involved in the process.
19 Regional tensions around economic development, slavery, territorial expansion and governance resulted in a civil war and a period of Reconstruction that led to the abolition of slavery, a more powerful federal government, a renewed push into indigenous nations' territory and continuing conflict over racial relations.
22.214.171.124.1 Explain the causes of the Civil War; describe how the debate over slavery and abolition played out in Minnesota.
126.96.36.199.3 Explain reasons for the United States-Dakota War of 1862; compare and contrast the perspectives of settlers and Dakota people before, during and after the war.
20 As the United States shifted from its agrarian roots into an industrial and global power, the rise of big business, urbanization and immigration led to institutionalized racism, ethnic and class conflict and new efforts at reform.
188.8.131.52.1 Analyze how the rise of big business, the growth of industry, the use of natural resources, and technological innovation influenced Minnesota's economy from 1860 to 1920.
184.108.40.206.2 Analyze the causes and impact of migration and immigration on Minnesota society during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
220.127.116.11.3 Describe the effects of reform movements on the political and social culture of Minnesota in the early twentieth century.
18.104.22.168.4 Describe Minnesota and federal American Indian policy of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries and its impact on Anishinaabe and Dakota people, especially in the areas of education, land ownership and citizenship.
22.214.171.124.5 Describe the political and social culture of Minnesota during World War I and how it affected Minnesotans.
21 The economic growth, cultural innovation and political apathy of the 1920s ended in the Great Depression which spurred new forms of government intervention and renewed labor activism, followed by World War II and an economic resurgence.
126.96.36.199.1 Describe how the major cultural and social transformations of the 1920s changed the lifestyle of Minnesotans.
188.8.131.52.2 Describe political and social impact of the Great Depression and New Deal in Minnesota, including the increased conflict between big business and organized labor.
184.108.40.206.4 Identify contributions of Minnesota and its people to World War II; describe the impact of the war on the home front and Minnesota society after the war.
22 Post-World War II United States was shaped by an economic boom, Cold War military engagements, politics and protests, and rights movements to improve the status of racial minorities, women and America's indigenous peoples.
220.127.116.11.1 Give examples of economic changes in Minnesota during the Cold War era; describe the impact of these changes on Minnesota's people.
18.104.22.168.2 Describe civil rights and conservation movements in post- World War II Minnesota, including the role of Minnesota leaders.
22.214.171.124.3 Describe the response of Minnesotans to global conflicts and displaced peoples since 1945.
23 The end of the Cold War, shifting geopolitical dynamics, the intensification of the global economy and rapidly changing technologies have given renewed urgency to debates about the United States' identity, values and role in the world.
126.96.36.199.1 Identify the push-pull factors that bring the Hmong, East African, Hispanic, Asian Indian and other immigrants and refugees to Minnesota; compare and contrast their experiences with those of earlier Minnesota immigrant groups in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
188.8.131.52.2 Identify the major Minnesota political figures, ideas and industries that have shaped or continue to shape Minnesota and the United States today.