1 Democratic government depends on informed and engaged citizens who exhibit civic skills and values, practice civic discourse, vote and participate in elections, apply inquiry and analysis skills and take action to solve problems and shape public policy.
22.214.171.124.1 Exhibit civic skills including participating in civic discussion on issues in the contemporary United States, demonstrating respect for the opinions of people or groups who have different perspectives, and reaching consensus.
2 Civic Values and Principles of Democracy
3 The United States is based on democratic values and principles that include liberty, individual rights, justice, equality, the rule of law, limited government, common good, popular sovereignty, majority rule and minority rights.
126.96.36.199.1 Identify examples of how principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence and Preamble to the Constitution have been applied throughout United States history, including how they have evolved (if applicable) over time.
4 Individuals in a republic have rights, duties and responsibilities.
188.8.131.52.1 Explain landmark Supreme Court decisions involving the Bill of Rights and other individual protections; explain how these decisions helped define the scope and limits of personal, political and economic rights.
5 Citizenship and its rights and duties are established by law.
184.108.40.206.1 Describe the components of responsible citizenship including informed voting and decision making, developing and defending positions on public policy issues, and monitoring and influencing public decision making.
220.127.116.11.2 Compare and contrast the rights and responsibilities of citizens, non-citizens and dual citizens.
4 Governmental Institutions and Political Processes
6 The United States government has specific functions that are determined by the way that power is delegated and controlled among various bodies: the three levels (federal, state, local) and the three branches (legislative, executive, judicial) of government.
18.104.22.168.1 Describe historical applications of the principle of checks and balances within the United States government.
7 The primary purposes of rules and laws within the United States constitutional government are to protect individual rights, promote the general welfare and provide order.
22.214.171.124.1 Analyze how the Constitution and the Bill of Rights limits the government and the governed, protects individual rights, supports the principle of majority rule while protecting the rights of the minority, and promotes the general welfare.
5 Relationships of the United States to other nations and organizations
10 The United States establishes and maintains relationships and interacts with indigenous nations and other sovereign nations, and plays a key role in world affairs.
126.96.36.199.1 Describe diplomacy and other foreign policy tools; cite historical cases in which the United States government used these tools.
1 Economic Reasoning Skills
1 People make informed economic choices by identifying their goals, interpreting and applying data, considering the short- and long-run costs and benefits of alternative choices and revising their goals based on their analysis.
188.8.131.52.1 Apply reasoned decision-making techniques in making choices; explain why different households or groups faced with the same alternatives might make different choices.
3 Fundamental Concepts
3 Because of scarcity individuals, organizations and governments must evaluate trade-offs, make choices and incur opportunity costs.
184.108.40.206.1 Explain how items are allocated or rationed when scarcity exists.
5 Individuals, businesses and governments interact and exchange goods, services and resources in different ways and for different reasons; interactions between buyers and sellers in a market determines the price and quantity exchanged of a good, service or resource.
220.127.116.11.1 Describe how the interaction of buyers (through demand) and sellers (through supply) determines price in a market.
6 Profit provides an incentive for individuals and businesses; different business organizations and market structures have an effect on the profit, price and production of goods and services.
18.104.22.168.1 Describe profit as an incentive for an individual to take the risks associated with creating and producing new goods or starting a business in an existing market; give examples of how the pursuit of profit can lead to undesirable, as well as desirable, effects.
1 People use geographic representations and geospatial technologies to acquire, process and report information within a spatial context.
22.214.171.124.1 Create and use various kinds of maps, including overlaying thematic maps, of places in the United States; incorporate the "TODALSS" map basics, as well as points, lines and colored areas to display spatial information.
2 Historical inquiry is a process in which multiple sources and different kinds of historical evidence are analyzed to draw conclusions about how and why things happened in the past.
126.96.36.199.1 Pose questions about a topic in United States history, gather and organize a variety of primary and secondary sources related to the questions, analyze sources for credibility and bias; suggest possible answers and write a thesis statement; use sources to draw conclusions and support the thesis; present supported findings, and cite sources.
2 Peoples, Cultures and Change Over Time
4 The differences and similarities of cultures around the world are attributable to their diverse origins and histories, and interactions with other cultures throughout time.
188.8.131.52.1 Compare and contrast the distribution and political status of indigenous populations in the United States and Canada; describe how their status has evolved throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
4 United States History
18 Economic expansion and the conquest of indigenous and Mexican territory spurred the agricultural and industrial growth of the United States; led to increasing regional, economic and ethnic divisions; and inspired multiple reform movements.
184.108.40.206.1 Describe the processes that led to the territorial expansion of the United States, including the Louisiana Purchase and other land purchases, wars and treaties with foreign and indigenous nations, and annexation.
19 Regional tensions around economic development, slavery, territorial expansion and governance resulted in a Civil War and a period of Reconstruction that led to the abolition of slavery, a more powerful federal government, a renewed push into indigenous nations' territory and continuing conflict over racial relations.
220.127.116.11.1 Cite the main ideas of the debate over slavery and states' rights; explain how they resulted in major political compromises and, ultimately, war.
20 As the United States shifted from its agrarian roots into an industrial and global power, the rise of big business, urbanization and immigration led to institutionalized racism, ethnic and class conflict and new efforts at reform.
18.104.22.168.1 Explain the impact of the United States Industrial Revolution on the production, consumption and distribution of goods.
22.214.171.124.4 Analyze the effects of racism and legalized segregation on American society, including the compromise of 1876, the rise of "Jim Crow," immigration restriction, and the relocation of American Indian tribes to reservations.
126.96.36.199.5 Describe the strategies used by suffragists in their campaigns to secure the right to vote; identify the 19th Amendment.
188.8.131.52.6 Evaluate the changing role of the United States regarding its neighboring regions and its expanding sphere of influence around the world.
184.108.40.206.7 Outline the causes and conduct of World War I, including the nations involved, major political and military figures, and key battles.
220.127.116.11.8 Identify the political impact of World War I, including the formation of the League of Nations and renewed United States isolationism until World War II.
21 The economic growth, cultural innovation and political apathy of the 1920s ended in the Great Depression which spurred new forms of government intervention and renewed labor activism, followed by World War II and an economic resurgence.
18.104.22.168.1 Identify causes of the Great Depression and factors that led to an extended period of economic collapse in the United States.
22.214.171.124.2 Describe the impact of the Great Depression on United States society, including ethnic and racial minorities, and how government responded to events with New Deal policies.
126.96.36.199.3 Outline how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources during World War II; describe the impact of the war on domestic affairs.
188.8.131.52.4 Outline the causes and conduct of World War II including the nations involved, major political and military figures and key battles, and the Holocaust.
22 Post-World War II United States was shaped by an economic boom, Cold War military engagements, politics and protests, and rights movements to improve the status of racial minorities, women and America's indigenous peoples.
184.108.40.206.1 Identify military and non-military actions taken by the United States during the Cold War to resist the spread of communism.
220.127.116.11.2 Analyze the social and political effects of the Cold War on the people of the United States.
18.104.22.168.3 Compare and contrast the involvement and role of the United States in global conflicts and acts of cooperation.
22.214.171.124.4 Explain the economic boom and social transformation experienced by postwar United States.
126.96.36.199.5 Describe the changing role of the federal government in reshaping post-war society.
188.8.131.52.6 Compare and contrast the goals and tactics of the Civil Rights Movement, the American Indian Movement, and the Women's Rights Movement; explain the advantages and disadvantages of non-violent resistance.
23 The end of the Cold War, shifting geopolitical dynamics, the intensification of the global economy and rapidly changing technologies have given renewed urgency to debates about the United States' identity, values and role in the world.
184.108.40.206.1 Describe how new technologies have changed political, economic and social interactions.
220.127.116.11.2 Analyze the changing relations between the United States and other countries around the world in the beginning of the 21st century.