3 Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy.
4 Know that electrical energy is the flow of electrons through electrical conductors that connect sources of electrical energy to points of use, including:
electrical current paths through parallel and series circuits
production of electricity by fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants, wind generators, geothermal plants, and solar cells
use of electricity by appliances and equipment (e.g., calculators, hair dryers, light bulbs, motors).
5 Understand how light and radio waves carry energy through vacuum or matter by:
straight-line travel unless an object is encountered
reflection by a mirror, refraction by a lens, absorption by a dark object
separation of white light into different wavelengths by prisms
visibility of objects due to light emission or scattering.
6 Understand that vibrations of matter (e.g., sound, earthquakes, water waves) carry wave energy, including:
sound transmission through solids, liquids, and gases
relationship of pitch and loudness of sound to rate and distance (amplitude) of vibration
ripples made by objects dropped in water.
III Describe and explain forces that produce motion in objects.
1 Know that there are fundamental forces in nature (e.g., gravity, electromagnetic forces, nuclear forces).
2 Know that a force has both magnitude and direction.
3 Analyze the separate forces acting on an object at rest or in motion (e.g., gravity, elastic forces, friction), including how multiple forces reinforce or cancel one another to result in a net force that acts on an object.
4 Know that electric charge produces electrical fields and magnets produce magnetic fields.
5 Know how a moving magnetic field can produce an electric current (generator) and how an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnet).
6 Know that Earth has a magnetic field.
7 Know that an object's motion is always described relative to some other object or point (i.e., frame of reference).
8 Understand and apply Newton's Laws of Motion:
Objects in motion will continue in motion and objects at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force (inertia).
If a greater force is applied to an object a proportionally greater acceleration will occur.
If an object has more mass the effect of an applied force is proportionally less.
II Understand the properties, structures, and processes of living things and the interdependence of living things and their environments.
I Explain the diverse structures and functions of living things and the complex relationships between living things and their environments.
1 Describe how matter moves through ecosystems (e.g., water cycle, carbon cycle).