I Students are able to identify important people and events in order to analyze significant patterns, relationships, themes, ideas, beliefs, and turning points in New Mexico, United States, and world history in order to understand the complexity of the human experience.
1-A explore and explain how people and events have influenced the development of New Mexico up to the present day:
1 compare and contrast the settlement patterns of the American southwest with other regions of the United States;
2 analyze New Mexico's role and impact on the outcome of the civil war (e.g., strategic geographic location, significance of the battle of Glorieta Pass, trade routes to California, native allegiances); and
3 explain the role New Mexico played in the United States participation in the Spanish American war.
1-B analyze and interpret major eras, events and individuals from the periods of exploration and colonization through the civil war and reconstruction in United States history:
1 describe, evaluate and interpret the economic and political reasons for the American revolution, to include:
a attempts to regulate colonial trade through passage of Tea Act, Stamp Act and Intolerable Acts; colonists' reaction to British policy (e.g., boycotts, the sons of liberty, petitions, appeals to parliament);
b major debates of the constitutional convention and their resolution (e.g., the federalist papers), contributions and roles of major individuals in the writing and ratification of the constitution (e.g., George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, John Jay);
b major turning points in the civil war, including Gettysburg; unique nature of the civil war (e.g., impact of Americans fighting Americans, high casualties caused by disease and type of warfare, widespread destruction of American property);
3 describe and explain the impact of the American revolution on France and the French revolution.
1-D research historical events and people from a variety of perspectives:
1 demonstrate understanding and apply problem-solving skills for historical research, to include: use of primary and secondary sources; sequencing, posing questions to be answered by historical inquiry; collecting, interpreting and applying information; gathering and validating materials that present a variety of perspectives.
II Students understand how physical, natural, and cultural processes influence where people live, the ways in which people live, and how societies interact with one another and their environments.
2-A analyze and evaluate the characteristics and purposes of geographic tools, knowledge, skills and perspectives and apply them to explain the past, present and future in terms of patterns, events and issues:
1 describe patterns and processes of migration and diffusion; and
2 provide a historic overview of patterns of population expansion into the west by the many diverse groups of people (e.g., Native Americans, European Americans and others) to include movement into the southwest along established settlement, trade and rail routes.
2-F understand the effects of interactions between human and natural systems in terms of changes in meaning, use, distribution and relative importance of resources
1 describe the differing viewpoints that individuals and groups have with respect to the use of resources.
Civics and Government
III Students understand the ideals, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship and understand the content and history of the founding documents of the United States with particular emphasis on the United States and New Mexico constitutions and how governments function at local, state, tribal, and national levels.
3-A demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and national):
1 explain the structure and functions of the national government as expressed in the United States constitution, and explain the powers granted to the three branches of government and those reserved to the people, states and tribes, to include:
a the federal system (dividing sovereignty between the states and the federal government and their supporting bureaucracies);
3-D explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools, communities, states, tribes and countries:
1 explain basic law-making processes and how the design of the United States constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., elections, political parties, interest groups); and
2 understand the multiplicity and complexity of human rights issues.
IV Students understand basic economic principles and use economic reasoning skills to analyze the impact of economic systems (including the market economy) on individuals, families, businesses, communities, and governments.
4-A explain and describe how individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies make decisions, are influenced by incentives (economic as well as intrinsic) and the availability and use of scarce resources, and that their choices involve costs and varying ways of allocating:
1 explain and provide examples of economic goals;
2 analyze the full costs and benefits of alternative uses of resources that will lead to productive use of resources today and in the future; and
3 explain that tension between individuals, groups and countries is often based upon differential access to resources.
4-B explain how economic systems impact the way individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies make decisions about resources and the production and distribution of goods and services:
1 describe the relationships among supply, demand and price and their roles in the United States market system;
2 identify how fundamental characteristics of the United States' economic system influence economic decision making (e.g., private property, profits, competition) at local, state, tribal and national levels;
3 explain changing economic activities in the United States and New Mexico and the role of technology in those changes;
4 identify situations in which price and value diverge; and
5 describe the use of money over time (e.g., college funds beginning in elementary years, saving accounts, 401K accounts).
4-C describe the patterns of trade and exchange in early societies and civilizations and explore the extent of their continuation in today's world:
1 explain how specialization leads to interdependence and describe ways most Americans depend on people in other households, communities and nations for some of the goods they consume;
2 understand the interdependencies between the economies of New Mexico, the United States and the world;
3 understand the factors that currently limit New Mexico from becoming an urban state, including: the availability and allocation of water, and the extent to which New Mexico relies upon traditional economic forms (e.g., the acequia systems, localized agricultural markets);
4 describe the relationship between New Mexico, tribal and United States economic systems; and
5 compare and contrast New Mexico commerce with that of other states' commerce.