NCES.8.P.1.3 Compare physical changes such as size, shape and state to chemical changes that are the result of a chemical reaction to include changes in temperature, color, formation of a gas or precipitate.
NCES.8.E.2.2 Explain the use of fossils, ice cores, composition of sedimentary rocks, faults, and igneous rock formations found in rock layers as evidence of the history of the Earth and its changing life forms.
NCES.8.L.5 Understand the composition of various substances as it relates to their ability to serve as a source of energy and building materials for growth and repair of organisms.
NCES.8.L.5.1 Summarize how food provides the energy and the molecules required for building materials, growth and survival of all organisms (to include plants).
NCES.8.L.5.2 Explain the relationship among a healthy diet, exercise, and the general health of the body (emphasis on the relationship between respiration and digestion).
Structure and Functions of Living Organisms
NCES.Bio.1.1 Understand the relationship between the structures and functions of cells and their organelles.
NCES.Bio.1.1.1 Summarize the structure and function of organelles in eukaryotic cells (including the nucleus, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts, and ribosomes) and ways that these organelles interact with each other to perform the function of the cell.
NCES.Bio.1.1.2 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in terms of their general structures (plasma membrane and genetic material) and degree of complexity.
NCES.Bio.1.1.3 Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to perform specific functions in multicellular organisms.
NCES.Bio.1.2 Analyze the cell as a living system.
NCES.Bio.1.2.1 Explain how homeostasis is maintained in the cell and within an organism in various environments (including temperature and pH).
NCES.Bio.1.2.2 Analyze how cells grow and reproduce in terms of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis.
NCES.Bio.1.2.3 Explain how specific cell adaptations help cells survive in particular environments (focus on unicellular organisms).
NCES.Bio.2.1 Analyze the interdependence of living organisms within their environments.
NCES.Bio.2.1.1 Analyze the flow of energy and cycling of matter (water, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) through ecosystems relating the significance of each to maintaining the health and sustainability of an ecosystem.
NCES.Bio.2.1.4 Explain why ecosystems can be relatively stable over hundreds or thousands of years, even though populations may fluctuate (emphasizing availability of food, availability of shelter, number of predators and disease).
NCES.Bio.2.2 Understand the impact of human activities on the environment (one generation affects the next).
NCES.Bio.2.2.1 Infer how human activities (including population growth, pollution, global warming, burning of fossil fuels, habitat destruction and introduction of nonnative species) may impact the environment.
NCES.Bio.3.1.3 Explain how mutations in DNA that result from interactions with the environment (i.e. radiation and chemicals) or new combinations in existing genes lead to changes in function and phenotype.