1 The student asks questions, identifies problems, and plans and safely conducts classroom, laboratory, and field investigations to answer questions, explain phenomena, or design solutions using appropriate tools and models. The student is expected to:
A ask questions and define problems based on observations or information from text, phenomena, models, or investigations;
C demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment during classroom and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards;
D use tools, including calculators, microscopes, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, concave and convex lenses, laser pointers, mirrors, digital scales, balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, timing devices, materials for building circuits, materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums, and materials to support digital data collection such as computers, tablets, and cameras to observe, measure, test, and analyze information;
F construct appropriate graphic organizers used to collect data, including tables, bar graphs, line graphs, tree maps, concept maps, Venn diagrams, flow charts or sequence maps, and input-output tables that show cause and effect; and
2 The student analyzes and interprets data to derive meaning, identify features and patterns, and discover relationships or correlations to develop evidence-based arguments or evaluate designs. The student is expected to:
A identify advantages and limitations of models such as their size, scale, properties, and materials;
B communicate explanations and solutions individually and collaboratively in a variety of settings and formats; and
C listen actively to others' explanations to identify relevant evidence and engage respectfully in scientific discussion.
4 The student knows the contributions of scientists and recognizes the importance of scientific research and innovation for society. The student is expected to:
A explain how scientific discoveries and innovative solutions to problems impact science and society; and
B research and explore resources such as museums, libraries, professional organizations, private companies, online platforms, and mentors employed in a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field to investigate STEM careers.
5 Recurring themes and concepts
5 The student understands that recurring themes and concepts provide a framework for making connections across disciplines. The student is expected to:
A identify and use patterns to explain scientific phenomena or to design solutions;
6 The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties that determine how matter is identified, classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:
A compare and contrast matter based on measurable, testable, or observable physical properties, including mass, magnetism, relative density (sinking and floating using water as a reference point), physical state (solid, liquid, gas), volume, solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy and electric energy;
B demonstrate that electrical energy in complete circuits can be transformed into motion, light, sound, or thermal energy and identify the requirements for a functioning electrical circuit; and
C demonstrate and explain how light travels in a straight line and can be reflected, refracted, or absorbed.
9-11 Earth and space
9 The student recognizes patterns among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system and their effects. The student is expected to:
A demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours and explain how that causes the day/night cycle and the appearance of the Sun moving across the sky, resulting in changes in shadow positions and shapes.
11 The student understands how natural resources are important and can be managed. The student is expected to design and explain solutions such as conservation, recycling, or proper disposal to minimize environmental impact of the use of natural resources.
12-13 Organisms and environments
12 The student describes patterns, cycles, systems, and relationships within environments. The student is expected to:
A observe and describe how a variety of organisms survive by interacting with biotic and abiotic factors in a healthy ecosystem;