1 The student asks questions, identifies problems, and plans and safely conducts classroom, laboratory, and field investigations to answer questions, explain phenomena, or design solutions using appropriate tools and models. The student is expected to:
A ask questions and define problems based on observations or information from text, phenomena, models, or investigations;
B use scientific practices to plan and conduct descriptive investigations and use engineering practices to design solutions to problems;
C demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment during classroom and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards;
D use tools, including hand lenses; metric rulers; Celsius thermometers; wind vanes; rain gauges; graduated cylinders; beakers; digital scales; hot plates; meter sticks; magnets; notebooks; Sun, Earth, Moon system models; timing devices; materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums, aquariums, and collecting nets; and materials to support digital data collection such as computers, tablets, and cameras, to observe, measure, test, and analyze information;
F construct appropriate graphic organizers to collect data, including tables, bar graphs, line graphs, tree maps, concept maps, Venn diagrams, flow charts or sequence maps, and input-output tables that show cause and effect; and
G develop and use models to represent phenomena, objects, and processes or design a prototype for a solution to a problem.
2 The student analyzes and interprets data to derive meaning, identify features and patterns, and discover relationships or correlations to develop evidence-based arguments or evaluate designs. The student is expected to:
A identify advantages and limitations of models such as their size, scale, properties, and materials;
3 The student develops evidence-based explanations and communicates findings, conclusions, and proposed solutions. The student is expected to:
A develop explanations and propose solutions supported by data and models;
B communicate explanations and solutions individually and collaboratively in a variety of settings and formats; and
C listen actively to others' explanations to identify relevant evidence and engage respectfully in scientific discussion.
4 The student knows the contributions of scientists and recognizes the importance of scientific research and innovation for society. The student is expected to:
A explain how scientific discoveries and innovative solutions to problems impact science and society; and
B research and explore resources such as museums, libraries, professional organizations, private companies, online platforms, and mentors employed in a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field to investigate STEM careers.
5 Recurring themes and concepts
5 The student understands that recurring themes and concepts provide a framework for making connections across disciplines. The student is expected to:
A identify and use patterns to explain scientific phenomena or to design solutions;
C predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling in a variety of substances such as ice becoming liquid water, condensation forming on the outside of a glass, or liquid water being heated to the point of becoming water vapor (gas); and
D demonstrate that materials can be combined based on their physical properties to create or modify objects such as building a tower or adding clay to sand to make a stronger brick and justify the selection of materials based on their physical properties.