B design and implement comparative and experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;
3 The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists.
A in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;
B use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature;
4 The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry.
A use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and
B use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.
5 The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties.
A describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud;
C investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.
7 The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
A model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun causing changes in seasons;
B demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle; and
C relate the position of the Moon and Sun to their effect on ocean tides.
8 The student knows characteristics of the universe.
A describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Herztsprung-Russell diagram for classification;
B recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star;
C explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to gain information about distances and properties of components in the universe;
D model and describe how light years are used to measure distances and sizes in the universe; and
E research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.
9 The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems.
A describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory;
B relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features; and