1 The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, asks questions, identifies problems, and plans and safely conducts classroom, laboratory, and field investigations to answer questions, explain phenomena, or design solutions using appropriate tools and models. The student is expected to:
A ask questions and define problems based on observations or information from text, phenomena, models, or investigations;
D use appropriate tools such as graduated cylinders, metric rulers, periodic tables, balances, scales, thermometers, temperature probes, laboratory ware, timing devices, pH indicators, hot plates, models, microscopes, slides, life science models, petri dishes, dissecting kits, magnets, spring scales or force sensors, tools that model wave behavior, satellite images, weather maps, hand lenses, and lab notebooks or journals;
2 The student analyzes and interprets data to derive meaning, identify features and patterns, and discover relationships or correlations to develop evidence-based arguments or evaluate designs. The student is expected to:
A identify advantages and limitations of models such as their size, scale, properties, and materials;
B communicate explanations and solutions individually and collaboratively in a variety of settings and formats; and
C engage respectfully in scientific argumentation using applied scientific explanations and empirical evidence.
4 The student knows the contributions of scientists and recognizes the importance of scientific research and innovation on society. The student is expected to:
A relate the impact of past and current research on scientific thought and society, including the process of science, cost-benefit analysis, and contributions of diverse scientists as related to the content;
B make informed decisions by evaluating evidence from multiple appropriate sources to assess the credibility, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, and methods used; and
C research and explore resources such as museums, libraries, professional organizations, private companies, online platforms, and mentors employed in a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field to investigate STEM careers.
5 Recurring themes and concepts
5 The student understands that recurring themes and concepts provide a framework for making connections across disciplines. The student is expected to:
A identify and apply patterns to understand and connect scientific phenomena or to design solutions;
B investigate and describe how Newton's three laws of motion act simultaneously within systems such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.
C describe the interactions between ocean currents and air masses that produce tropical cyclones, including typhoons and hurricanes.
11 The student knows that natural events and human activity can impact global climate. The student is expected to:
A use scientific evidence to describe how natural events, including volcanic eruptions, meteor impacts, abrupt changes in ocean currents, and the release and absorption of greenhouse gases influence climate;
C describe how variations of traits within a population lead to structural, behavioral, and physiological adaptations that influence the likelihood of survival and reproductive success of a species over generations.