c Diagram the arrangement of particles in the physical states of matter (i.e., solid, liquid, gas).
d Describe the limitations of using models to represent atoms (e.g., distance between particles in atoms cannot be represented to scale in models, the motion of electrons cannot be described in most models).
e Investigate and report how our knowledge of the structure of matter has been developed over time.
2 Accurately measure the characteristics of matter in different states.
a Use appropriate instruments to determine mass and volume of solids and liquids and record data.
b Use observations to predict the relative density of various solids and liquids.
c Calculate the density of various solids and liquids.
d Formulate and test a hypothesis on the relationship between temperature and motion.
e Describe the impact of expansion and contraction of solid materials on the design of buildings, highways, and other structures.
2 Students will understand the relationship between properties of matter and Earth's structure.
1 Examine the effects of density and particle size on the behavior of materials in mixtures.
a Compare the density of various objects to the density of known earth materials.
b Calculate the density of earth materials (e.g., rocks, water, air).
c Observe and describe the sorting of earth materials in a mixture based on density and particle size (e.g., sorting grains of sand of the same size with different densities, sort materials of different particle size with equal densities).
d Relate the sorting of materials that can be observed in streambeds, road cuts, or beaches to the density and particle size of those materials.
e Design and conduct an experiment that provides data on the natural sorting of various earth materials.
2 Analyze how density affects Earth's structure.
a Compare the densities of Earth's atmosphere, water, crust, and interior layers.
b Relate density to the relative positioning of Earth's atmosphere, water, crust, and interior.
c Model the layering of Earth's atmosphere, water, crust, and interior due to density differences.
b Contrast the exchange of genetic information in sexual and asexual reproduction (e.g., number of parents, variation of genetic material).
c Cite examples of organisms that reproduce sexually (e.g., rats, mosquitoes, salmon, sunflowers) and those that reproduce asexually (e.g., hydra, planaria, bacteria, fungi, cuttings from house plants).
d Compare inherited structural traits of offspring and their parents.
2 Relate the adaptability of organisms in an environment to their inherited traits and structures.
a Predict why certain traits (e.g., structure of teeth, body structure, coloration) are more likely to offer an advantage for survival of an organism.
c Cite examples of changes in genetic traits due to natural and manmade influences (e.g., mimicry in insects, plant hybridization to develop a specific trait, breeding of dairy cows to produce more milk).
d Relate the structure of organs to an organism's ability to survive in a specific environment (e.g., hollow bird bones allow them to fly in air, hollow structure of hair insulates animals from hot or cold, dense root structure allows plants to grow in compact soil, fish fins aid fish in moving in water).
5 Students will understand that structure is used to develop classification systems.
1 Classify based on observable properties.
a Categorize nonliving objects based on external structures (e.g., hard, soft).
b Compare living, once living, and nonliving things.
c Defend the importance of observation in scientific classification.
d Demonstrate that there are many ways to classify things.
2 Use and develop a simple classification system.
a Using a provided classification scheme, classify things (e.g., shells, leaves, rocks, bones, fossils, weather, clouds, stars, planets).
b Develop a classification system based on observed structural characteristics.
c Generalize rules for classification.
d Relate the importance of classification systems to the development of science knowledge.
e Recognize that classification is a tool made by science to describe perceived patterns in nature.