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Skills available for Utah seventh-grade science standards

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1 Students will understand the structure of matter.

  • 1 Describe the structure of matter in terms of atoms and molecules.

    • a Recognize that atoms are too small to see.

    • b Relate atoms to molecules (e.g., atoms combine to make molecules).

    • c Diagram the arrangement of particles in the physical states of matter (i.e., solid, liquid, gas).

    • d Describe the limitations of using models to represent atoms (e.g., distance between particles in atoms cannot be represented to scale in models, the motion of electrons cannot be described in most models).

    • e Investigate and report how our knowledge of the structure of matter has been developed over time.

  • 2 Accurately measure the characteristics of matter in different states.

    • a Use appropriate instruments to determine mass and volume of solids and liquids and record data.

    • b Use observations to predict the relative density of various solids and liquids.

    • c Calculate the density of various solids and liquids.

    • d Describe the relationship between mass and volume as it relates to density.

    • e Design a procedure to measure mass and volume of gases.

  • 3 Investigate the motion of particles.

    • a Identify evidence that particles are in constant motion.

    • b Compare the motion of particles at various temperatures by measuring changes in the volume of gases, liquids, or solids.

    • c Design and conduct an experiment investigating the diffusion of particles.

    • d Formulate and test a hypothesis on the relationship between temperature and motion.

    • e Describe the impact of expansion and contraction of solid materials on the design of buildings, highways, and other structures.

2 Students will understand the relationship between properties of matter and Earth's structure.

  • 1 Examine the effects of density and particle size on the behavior of materials in mixtures.

    • a Compare the density of various objects to the density of known earth materials.

    • b Calculate the density of earth materials (e.g., rocks, water, air).

    • c Observe and describe the sorting of earth materials in a mixture based on density and particle size (e.g., sorting grains of sand of the same size with different densities, sort materials of different particle size with equal densities).

    • d Relate the sorting of materials that can be observed in streambeds, road cuts, or beaches to the density and particle size of those materials.

    • e Design and conduct an experiment that provides data on the natural sorting of various earth materials.

  • 2 Analyze how density affects Earth's structure.

    • a Compare the densities of Earth's atmosphere, water, crust, and interior layers.

    • b Relate density to the relative positioning of Earth's atmosphere, water, crust, and interior.

    • c Model the layering of Earth's atmosphere, water, crust, and interior due to density differences.

    • d Distinguish between models of Earth with accurate and inaccurate attributes.

3 Students will understand that the organs in an organism are made of cells that have structures and perform specific life functions.

4 Students will understand that offspring inherit traits that make them more or less suitable to survive in the environment.

  • 1 Compare how sexual and asexual reproduction passes genetic information from parent to offspring.

    • a Distinguish between inherited and acquired traits.

    • b Contrast the exchange of genetic information in sexual and asexual reproduction (e.g., number of parents, variation of genetic material).

    • c Cite examples of organisms that reproduce sexually (e.g., rats, mosquitoes, salmon, sunflowers) and those that reproduce asexually (e.g., hydra, planaria, bacteria, fungi, cuttings from house plants).

    • d Compare inherited structural traits of offspring and their parents.

  • 2 Relate the adaptability of organisms in an environment to their inherited traits and structures.

    • a Predict why certain traits (e.g., structure of teeth, body structure, coloration) are more likely to offer an advantage for survival of an organism.

    • b Cite examples of traits that provide an advantage for survival in one environment but not other environments.

    • c Cite examples of changes in genetic traits due to natural and manmade influences (e.g., mimicry in insects, plant hybridization to develop a specific trait, breeding of dairy cows to produce more milk).

    • d Relate the structure of organs to an organism's ability to survive in a specific environment (e.g., hollow bird bones allow them to fly in air, hollow structure of hair insulates animals from hot or cold, dense root structure allows plants to grow in compact soil, fish fins aid fish in moving in water).

5 Students will understand that structure is used to develop classification systems.

  • 1 Classify based on observable properties.

    • a Categorize nonliving objects based on external structures (e.g., hard, soft).

    • b Compare living, once living, and nonliving things.

    • c Defend the importance of observation in scientific classification.

    • d Demonstrate that there are many ways to classify things.

  • 2 Use and develop a simple classification system.

  • 3 Classify organisms using an orderly pattern based upon structure.

    • a Identify types of organisms that are not classified as either plant or animal.

    • b Arrange organisms according to kingdom (i.e., plant, animal, monera, fungi, protist).

    • c Use a classification key or field guide to identify organisms.

    • d Report on changes in classification systems as a result of new information or technology.