c Investigate the results of the combined weights of a liquid and a solid after the solid has been dissolved and then recovered from the liquid (e.g., salt dissolved in water then water evaporated).
d Investigate chemical reactions in which the total weight of the materials before and after reaction is the same (e.g., cream and vinegar before and after mixing, borax and glue mixed to make a new substance).
2 Evaluate evidence that indicates a physical change has occurred.
a Identify the physical properties of matter (e.g., hard, soft, solid, liquid, gas).
d Research and report the use of magnets that is supported by sound scientific principles.
2 Describe how the magnetic field of Earth and a magnet are similar.
a Compare the magnetic fields of various types of magnets (e.g., bar magnet, disk magnet, horseshoe magnet).
b Compare Earth's magnetic field to the magnetic field of a magnet.
c Construct a compass and explain how it works.
d Investigate the effects of magnets on the needle of a compass and compare this to the effects of Earth's magnetic field on the needle of a compass (e.g., magnets affect the needle only at close distances, Earth's magnetic field affects the needle at great distances, magnets close to a compass overrides the Earth's effect on the needle).
4 Students will understand features of static and current electricity.
1 Describe the behavior of static electricity as observed in nature and everyday occurrences.
a List several occurrences of static electricity that happen in everyday life.
d Compare the amount of static charge produced by rubbing various materials together (e.g., rubbing fur on a glass rod produces a greater charge than rubbing the fur with a metal rod, the static charge produced when a balloon is rubbed on hair is greater than when a plastic bag is rubbed on hair).
e Investigate how various materials react differently to statically charged objects.
2 Analyze the behavior of current electricity.
a Draw and label the components of a complete electrical circuit that includes switches and loads (e.g., light bulb, bell, speaker, motor).
b Predict the effect of changing one or more of the components (e.g., battery, load, wires) in an electric circuit.
c Generalize the properties of materials that carry the flow of electricity using data by testing different materials.
d Investigate materials that prevent the flow of electricity.
e Make a working model of a complete circuit using a power source, switch, bell or light, and a conductor for a pathway.
5 Students will understand that traits are passed from the parent organisms to their offspring, and that sometimes the offspring may possess variations of these traits that may help or hinder survival in a given environment.
1 Using supporting evidence, show that traits are transferred from a parent organism to its offspring.
a Make a chart and collect data identifying various traits among a given population (e.g., the hand span of students in the classroom, the color and texture of different apples, the number of petals of a given flower).
b Identify similar physical traits of a parent organism and its offspring (e.g., trees and saplings, leopards and cubs, chickens and chicks).
c Compare various examples of offspring that do not initially resemble the parent organism but mature to become similar to the parent organism (e.g., mealworms and darkling beetles, tadpoles and frogs, seedlings and vegetables, caterpillars and butterflies).
d Contrast inherited traits with traits and behaviors that are not inherited but may be learned or induced by environmental factors (e.g., cat purring to cat meowing to be let out of the house; the round shape of a willow is inherited, while leaning away from the prevailing wind is induced).
e Investigate variations and similarities in plants grown from seeds of a parent plant (e.g., how seeds from the same plant species can produce different colored flowers or identical flowers).
2 Describe how some characteristics could give a species a survival advantage in a particular environment.
a Compare the traits of similar species for physical abilities, instinctual behaviors, and specialized body structures that increase the survival of one species in a specific environment over another species (e.g., difference between the feet of snowshoe hare and cottontail rabbit, differences in leaves of plants growing at different altitudes, differences between the feathers of an owl and a hummingbird, differences in parental behavior among various fish).
b Identify that some environments give one species a survival advantage over another (e.g., warm water favors fish such as carp, cold water favors fish such as trout, environments that burn regularly favor grasses, environments that do not often burn favor trees).
c Describe how a particular physical attribute may provide an advantage for survival in one environment but not in another (e.g., heavy fur in arctic climates keep animals warm whereas in hot desert climates it would cause overheating; flippers on such animals as sea lions and seals provide excellent swimming structures in the water but become clumsy and awkward on land; cacti retain the right amount of water in arid regions but would develop root rot in a more temperate region; fish gills have the ability to absorb oxygen in water but not on land).