1 Students will understand the nature of changes in matter.
1 Describe the chemical and physical properties of various substances.
a Differentiate between chemical and physical properties.
b Classify substances based on their chemical and physical properties (e.g., reacts with water, does not react with water, flammable or nonflammable, hard or soft, flexible or nonflexible, evaporates or melts at room temperature).
c Investigate and report on the chemical and physical properties of a particular substance.
2 Observe and evaluate evidence of chemical and physical change.
a Identify observable evidence of a physical change (e.g., change in shape, size, phase).
c Demonstrate that mass is conserved in a chemical reaction (e.g., mix two solutions that result in a color change or formation of a precipitate and weigh the solutions before and after mixing).
d Experiment with variables affecting the relative rates of chemical changes (e.g., heating, cooling, stirring, crushing, concentration).
e Research and report on how scientists or engineers have applied principles of chemistry to an application encountered in daily life (e.g., heat-resistant plastic handles on pans, rust-resistant paints on highway bridges).
2 Students will understand that energy from sunlight is changed to chemical energy in plants, transfers between living organisms, and that changing the environment may alter the amount of energy provided to living organisms.
1 Compare ways that plants and animals obtain and use energy.
a Recognize the importance of photosynthesis in using light energy as part of the chemical process that builds plant materials.
b Explain how respiration in animals is a process that converts food energy into mechanical and heat energy.
c Trace the path of energy from the sun to mechanical energy in an organism (e.g., sunlight - light energy to plants by photosynthesis to sugars - stored chemical energy to respiration in muscle cell - usable chemical energy to muscle contraction- mechanical energy).
2 Generalize the dependent relationships between organisms.
a Categorize the relationships between organisms (i.e., producer/consumer, predator/prey, mutualism, parasitism) and provide examples of each.
c Formulate and test a hypothesis on the effects of air, temperature, water, or light on plants (e.g., seed germination, growth rates, seasonal adaptations).
d Research multiple ways that different scientists have investigated the same ecosystem.
3 Analyze human influence on the capacity of an environment to sustain living things.
a Describe specific examples of how humans have changed the capacity of an environment to support specific life forms (e.g., people create wetlands and nesting boxes that increase the number and range of wood ducks, acid rain damages amphibian eggs and reduces population of frogs, clear cutting forests affects squirrel populations, suburban sprawl reduces mule deer winter range thus decreasing numbers of deer).
b Distinguish between inference and evidence in a newspaper or magazine article relating to the effect of humans on the environment.
c Infer the potential effects of humans on a specific food web.
d Evaluate and present arguments for and against allowing a specific species of plant or animal to become extinct, and relate the argument to the of flow energy in an ecosystem.
3 Students will understand the processes of rock and fossil formation.
1 Compare rocks and minerals and describe how they are related.
a Recognize that most rocks are composed of minerals.
e Engineer (design and build) a machine that uses gravity to accomplish a task.
3 Investigate the application of forces that act on objects, and the resulting motion.
a Calculate the mechanical advantage created by a lever.
b Engineer a device that uses levers or inclined planes to create a mechanical advantage.
c Engineer a device that uses friction to control the motion of an object.
d Design and build a complex machine capable of doing a specified task.
e Investigate the principles used to engineer changes in forces and motion.
4 Analyze various forms of energy and how living organisms sense and respond to energy.
a Analyze the cyclic nature of potential and kinetic energy (e.g., a bouncing ball, a pendulum).
b Trace the conversion of energy from one form of energy to another (e.g., light to chemical to mechanical).
c Cite examples of how organisms sense various types of energy.
d Investigate and report the response of various organisms to changes in energy (e.g., plant response to light, human response to motion, sound, light, insects' response to changes in light intensity).
e Investigate and describe how engineers have developed devices to help us sense various types of energy (e.g., seismographs, eyeglasses, telescopes, hearing aids).