Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.
M.8.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.
M.8.2 Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram and estimate the value of expressions such as π². (e.g., By truncating the decimal expansion of √2, show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.)
M.8.4 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x² = p and x³ = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.
M.8.5 Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. (e.g., Estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.)
M.8.6 Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities. (e.g., Use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading.) Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
M.8.7 Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. (e.g., Compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.)
M.8.8 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.
Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
M.8.9 Solve linear equations in one variable.
M.8.9.a Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
M.8.10 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
M.8.10.a Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
M.8.10.b Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. (e.g., 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.)
M.8.10.c Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. (e.g., Given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.)
M.8.12 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). (e.g., Given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.)
M.8.13 Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (e.g., The function A = s² giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.)
Use functions to model relationships between quantities
M.8.14 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.
M.8.15 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.
M.8.17 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.
M.8.19 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations and dilations; given two similar two dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.
M.8.20 Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. (e.g., Arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so.)
Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
M.8.25 Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association and nonlinear association.
M.8.26 Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
M.8.27 Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. (e.g., In a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.)
M.8.28 Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. (e.g., Collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?)