R.9-10.2 Objectively and accurately summarize texts, from a variety of genres, to determine one or more themes or central ideas and analyze its development, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details. (RI&RL)
R.9-10.3 In literary texts, analyze how complex and/or dynamic characters develop, interact with other characters, advance the plot, or develop a theme. (RL) In informational texts, analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or argument, including the sequence, the introduction and development of ideas, and the connections that exist. (RI)
R.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases, including figurative and connotative meanings. Analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning, tone, and mood. Examine technical or key terms and how language differs across genres. (RI&RL)
R.9-10.5 In literary texts, consider how varied aspects of structure create meaning and affect the reader. (RL) In informational texts, consider how the author's intent influences particular sentences, paragraphs, or sections. (RI)
R.9-10.6 Analyze how authors employ point of view, perspective, and purpose to shape explicit and implicit messages (e.g., examine rhetorical strategies, literary elements and devices). Explain how an author’s geographic location, identity, and culture affect perspective. (RI&RL)
R.9-10.7 Analyze how a subject and/or content is presented in two or more formats by determining which details are emphasized, altered, or absent in each account (e.g., analyze the representation of a subject and/or content or key scene in two different formats). (RI&RL)
R.9-10.8 Delineate and evaluate an argument and specific claims in a text, assessing the validity or fallacy of key statements by examining whether the supporting evidence is relevant and sufficient. (RI )
R.9-10.9 Choose and develop criteria to evaluate the quality of texts. Make connections to other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, identities, eras, and personal experiences. (RI&RL)
Text Types and Purposes
W.9-10.1 Compose reflective, formal, and creative writing, which may happen simultaneously or independently, for a variety of high-stakes and low-stakes purposes.
W.9-10.2 Write text in a variety of modes:
W.9-10.2a Write arguments and literary analysis to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning, literary theory, and relevant and sufficient evidence which introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.
W.9-10.2b Write informative texts that examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content by introducing a topic; organizing complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; including formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension; developing the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, and other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
W.9-10.2c Write narratives that develop real or imagined experiences or events using relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences that organize an event sequence logically. Engages and orients the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator or characters; using techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
W.9-10.3a Organization: introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, analysis, information and claims to make important connections and distinctions. Establish and maintain a structure and conventions consistent with the mode of writing. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the topic, themes, and experiences presented in the text.
W.9-10.3c Word Choice (including domain specific): use culturally-sustaining language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic. Use telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of thoughts, ideas and experiences.
W.9-10.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are culturally-sustaining and rhetorically authentic to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)
W.9-10.5 Develop and strengthen writing (collaboratively and individually) as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
W.9-10.6 Make informed and intentional decisions about technology use (including paper and pencil, internet, audio, visual, multilingual, multimodal, mobile, and/or other interactive formats) to engage in authentic rhetorical tasks for specific purposes and audiences. Such decisions include assessing particular technologies’ affordances for:
W.9-10.6a connecting writers and readers.
W.9-10.6b producing accessible experiences for specific audiences.
W.9-10.6c dynamically and flexibly matching modes with ideas to communicate with readers.
Inquiry to Build and Present Knowledge
W.9-10.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem that is rhetorically authentic and culturally-sustaining; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating an understanding of the subject under investigation.
W.9-10.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital, academic and popular sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
L.9-10.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how language functions in different cultures, contexts, and disciplines; apply this knowledge to comprehend more fully when reading and listening, and make effective choices when composing, creating, and speaking.
L.9-10.1a Recognize that standardized English is only one dialect of many and has a specific history that is implicated in power relationships.
L.9-10.1b Develop communicative competence by effectively determining and appropriately responding to the language demands of varied situations (i.e., effectively consider the relationship between your intent as an author and the context, purpose, genre, and audience needs of writing and speaking situations).
L.9-10.1c Develop metacognitive awareness as writers and speakers, justifying and evaluating the effectiveness of language choices.
L.9-10.1d Recognize standardized guidelines and style manuals exist for various disciplines (e.g., Modern Language Association [MLA] in English; American Psychological Association [APA] in Education, Science, and Psychology); write and edit work so that it conforms to the expectations of the discipline and writing situation.
L.9-10.2 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases in grade-level reading and content; use context clues, analyze meaningful word parts, consult general and specialized reference materials, and apply word solving strategies (for meaning) as appropriate.
L.9-10.2a Determine the pronunciation, precise meaning, part of speech, and etymology of words; verify by consulting general and specialized print and digital reference materials as appropriate.
L.9-10.3b Analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning, tone, and the effectiveness of a response (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time, place, and culture; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
L.9-10.4 Demonstrate an ability to collaboratively and independently build vocabulary knowledge when encountering unknown words including cultural, general academic, and discipline-specific terms and phrases; make intentional vocabulary choices appropriate to the context and situation.
L.9-10.5 Demonstrate contextually appropriate use of the conventions of standardized English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Discern when and where it is appropriate to use standardized English. Appropriately use and explain the intended purpose of language choice with:
L.9-10.5b Convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing and presentations through the use of various types of phrases (e.g., noun, verb, adjectival, and prepositional) and clauses (e.g., independent, dependent, and adverbial).
L.9-10.6 English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Discern when and where it is appropriate to use standardized English. Appropriately use and explain the intended purpose in conventions with: • Use colons and semicolons appropriately. • Spell correctly.