R.8.3 In literary texts, analyze how particular lines of dialogue or events propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. (RL) In informational texts, analyze how individuals, events, and ideas are introduced, related to each other, and developed. (RI)
R.8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases, including figurative and connotative meanings. Analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning, tone, and mood, including words with multiple meanings within a text. (RI&RL)
R.8.5 In literary and informational texts, compare and contrast the structures of two or more texts in order to analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to overall meaning, style, theme, or central idea. (RI&RL)
R.8.6 In literary texts, analyze how the differences between the point of view, perspectives, and possible biases of the characters, the audience, or reader create effects such as mood and tone. (RL) In informational texts, explain how an author’s geographic location, identity, and/or culture affect perspective. Analyze how the author addresses conflicting evidence or viewpoints. (RI)
R.8.7 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different media—print, audio, video, stage, or digital—to present a particular subject or idea and analyze the extent to which a production remains faithful to or departs from the written text. (RI&RL)
R.8.8 Trace and evaluate an argument and specific claims in a text. Assess whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient. Recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. (RI)
W.8.1 Compose reflective, formal, and creative writing, which may happen simultaneously or independently, for a variety of high-stakes and low-stakes purposes.
W.8.2 Write text in a variety of modes:
W.8.2a Write arguments to introduce and support claim(s) using logical reasoning, relevant evidence and literary theory. Use accurate, credible sources and demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
W.8.2b Write informative/explanatory text, examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content by introducing and developing a topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples, organizing ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
W.8.2c Write narratives that develop real or imagined experiences or events using relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences that organize an event sequence logically. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introduces a narrator or characters; using techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and characters.
W.8.3a Organization: provide an introduction that creates suspense and anticipation for the reader. Structure of the text supports and clarifies the purpose and topic throughout the entire text. Conclusion statement provides closure and ties up all loose ends.
W.8.4 Independently and collaboratively produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are culturally-sustaining and rhetorically authentic to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.8.5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
W.8.6 Use technology, (including paper and pencil, internet, audio, visual, multilingual, multimodal, mobile, and/or other interactive formats), to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
Inquiry to Build and Present Knowledge
W.8.7 Conduct short inquiry projects to answer a question (including self-generated questions), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
W.8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
L.8.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how language functions in different cultures, contexts, and disciplines; apply this knowledge to comprehend more fully when reading and listening, and make effective choices when composing, creating, and speaking.
L.8.1a Recognize that standardized English is only one dialect of many and has a specific history that is implicated in power relationships.
L.8.1b Determine the language demands of a writing/speaking situation; respond in appropriate ways (e.g., precise and concise language; extended and descriptive language; incorporation of code-meshing, etc.).
L.8.1c Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
L.8.1d Begin to develop metacognitive awareness as writers and speakers by explaining the reasons for language choices.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
L.8.2 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases in grade-level reading and content; use context clues, analyze meaningful word parts, consult general and specialized reference materials, and apply word solving strategies (for meaning) as appropriate
L.8.2a Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
L.8.2b Use grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.
L.8.3 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.3a Determine the denotative, connotative, and figurative meanings of words and phrases used in texts; when words have similar denotations, be able to describe differences in connotation and their impact on meaning and tone.
L.8.4 Demonstrate an ability to collaboratively and independently build vocabulary knowledge when encountering unknown words including cultural, general academic, and discipline-specific terms and phrases; make intentional vocabulary choices appropriate to the context and situation.
L.8.5 Demonstrate contextually appropriate use of the conventions of standardized English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Discern when and where it is appropriate to use standardized English. Appropriately use and explain the intended purpose of language choice with:
L.8.6 Demonstrate contextually appropriate use of the conventions of standardized English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Discern when and where it is appropriate to use standardized English. Appropriately use and explain the intended purpose in conventions with: