Read a wide range of literature (American and world literature) to understand important universal themes and the human experience
2.1 Increasingly complex literary elements in traditional and contemporary works of literature require scrutiny and comparison
2.1.a Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
2.1.b Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
2.1.c Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
2.1.e Identify the characteristics that distinguish literary forms and genres
2.1.e.i Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).
2.1.e.ii Use literary terms to describe and analyze selections
2.1.f By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Demonstrate comprehension of a variety of informational, literary, and persuasive texts
2.2 Increasingly complex informational texts require mature interpretation and study
2.2.a Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
2.2.d Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
2.2.e Use flexible reading and note-taking strategies (outlining, mapping systems, skimming, scanning, key word search) to organize information and make connections within and across informational texts
2.2.f Critique author's choice of expository, narrative, persuasive, or descriptive modes to convey a message
2.2.g Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.