SC.5.E.5 Humans continue to explore Earth's place in space. Gravity and energy influence the formation of galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, stars, the Solar System, and Earth. Humankind's need to explore continues to lead to the development of knowledge and understanding of our Solar System.
SC.5.E.5.1 Recognize that a galaxy consists of gas, dust, and many stars, including any objects orbiting the stars. Identify our home galaxy as the Milky Way.
SC.5.E.5.2 Recognize the major common characteristics of all planets and compare/contrast the properties of inner and outer planets.
SC.5.E.5.3 Distinguish among the following objects of the Solar System -- Sun, planets, moons, asteroids, comets -- and identify Earth's position in it.
SC.5.E.7 Humans continue to explore the interactions among water, air, and land. Air and water are in constant motion that results in changing conditions that can be observed over time.
SC.5.E.7.1 Create a model to explain the parts of the water cycle. Water can be a gas, a liquid, or a solid and can go back and forth from one state to another.
C Humans can better understand the natural world through careful observation.
SC.5.L.14.1 Identify the organs in the human body and describe their functions, including the skin, brain, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, muscles and skeleton, reproductive organs, kidneys, bladder, and sensory organs.
SC.5.L.14.2 Compare and contrast the function of organs and other physical structures of plants and animals, including humans, for example: some animals have skeletons for support -- some with internal skeletons others with exoskeletons -- while some plants have stems for support.
SC.5.L.15 Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms
A Earth is home to a great diversity of living things, but changes in the environment can affect their survival.
B Individuals of the same kind often differ in their characteristics and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.
SC.5.L.17.1 Compare and contrast adaptations displayed by animals and plants that enable them to survive in different environments such as life cycles variations, animal behaviors and physical characteristics.
A Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.
B The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."
C Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.
D Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.
SC.5.N.1.1 Define a problem, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types such as: systematic observations, experiments requiring the identification of variables, collecting and organizing data, interpreting data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.
SC.5.N.1.2 Explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation.
SC.5.N.1.3 Recognize and explain the need for repeated experimental trials.
SC.5.N.1.4 Identify a control group and explain its importance in an experiment.
SC.5.N.1.5 Recognize and explain that authentic scientific investigation frequently does not parallel the steps of "the scientific method."
SC.5.N.1.6 Recognize and explain the difference between personal opinion/interpretation and verified observation.
SC.5.N.2 The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge
A Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.
B Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.
C Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.
SC.5.N.2.1 Recognize and explain that science is grounded in empirical observations that are testable; explanation must always be linked with evidence.
SC.5.N.2.2 Recognize and explain that when scientific investigations are carried out, the evidence produced by those investigations should be replicable by others.
SC.5.P Physical Science
SC.5.P.8 Properties of Matter
A All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.
B Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.
SC.5.P.8.1 Compare and contrast the basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases, such as mass, volume, color, texture, and temperature.
SC.5.P.13.4 Investigate and explain that when a force is applied to an object but it does not move, it is because another opposing force is being applied by something in the environment so that the forces are balanced.