SC.7.E.6 Over geologic time, internal and external sources of energy have continuously altered the features of Earth by means of both constructive and destructive forces. All life, including human civilization, is dependent on Earth's internal and external energy and material resources.
SC.7.E.6.1 Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores.
SC.7.E.6.3 Identify current methods for measuring the age of Earth and its parts, including the law of superposition and radioactive dating.
SC.7.E.6.4 Explain and give examples of how physical evidence supports scientific theories that Earth has evolved over geologic time due to natural processes.
SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and mountain building.
SC.7.L.15.1 Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species.
SC.7.L.15.2 Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms.
C Changes in the DNA of an organism can cause changes in traits, and manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to genetically modified organisms.
SC.7.L.16.1 Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.
SC.7.L.16.2 Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees.
SC.7.L.17.3 Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.
SC.7.N Nature of Science
SC.7.N.1 The Practice of Science
A Scientific inquiry is a multifaceted activity; The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation.
B The processes of science frequently do not correspond to the traditional portrayal of "the scientific method."
C Scientific argumentation is a necessary part of scientific inquiry and plays an important role in the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.
D Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Not only does science require creativity in its methods and processes, but also in its questions and explanations.
SC.7.N.1.1 Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.
SC.7.N.1.2 Differentiate replication (by others) from repetition (multiple trials).
SC.7.N.1.3 Distinguish between an experiment (which must involve the identification and control of variables) and other forms of scientific investigation and explain that not all scientific knowledge is derived from experimentation.
SC.7.N.1.4 Identify test variables (independent variables) and outcome variables (dependent variables) in an experiment.
SC.7.N.1.5 Describe the methods used in the pursuit of a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science such as biology, geology, and physics.
SC.7.N.1.6 Explain that empirical evidence is the cumulative body of observations of a natural phenomenon on which scientific explanations are based.
SC.7.N.1.7 Explain that scientific knowledge is the result of a great deal of debate and confirmation within the science community.
SC.7.N.2 The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge
A Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, and is appropriate for understanding the natural world, but it provides only a limited understanding of the supernatural, aesthetic, or other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, or religion.
B Scientific knowledge is durable and robust, but open to change.
C Because science is based on empirical evidence it strives for objectivity, but as it is a human endeavor the processes, methods, and knowledge of science include subjectivity, as well as creativity and discovery.
SC.7.N.2.1 Identify an instance from the history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed when new evidence or new interpretations are encountered.
SC.7.N.3 The terms that describe examples of scientific knowledge, for example; "theory," "law," "hypothesis," and "model" have very specific meanings and functions within science.
SC.7.N.3.1 Recognize and explain the difference between theories and laws and give several examples of scientific theories and the evidence that supports them.
SC.7.N.3.2 Identify the benefits and limitations of the use of scientific models.
SC.7.P Physical Science
SC.7.P.10 Forms of Energy
A Energy is involved in all physical processes and is a unifying concept in many areas of science.
B Energy exists in many forms and has the ability to do work or cause a change.
SC.7.P.10.1 Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors.
SC.7.P.10.2 Observe and explain that light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed.
SC.7.P.10.3 Recognize that light waves, sound waves, and other waves move at different speeds in different materials.
SC.7.P.11 Energy Transfer and Transformations
A Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.
B Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.
C Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.
D The Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.
SC.7.P.11.1 Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.
SC.7.P.11.2 Investigate and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another.
SC.7.P.11.3 Cite evidence to explain that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another.
SC.7.P.11.4 Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature.