Mesopotamia: Site of Several Ancient River Civilizations, c. 3500-1200 BC/BCE
7.7 On a historical map, locate the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and identify Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria as successive civilizations and empires in this region, and explain why the region is sometimes called "the Fertile Crescent." On a modern map of western Asia, identify the modern countries in the region (Iraq, Iran, and Turkey).
7.8 Identify polytheism (the belief that there are many gods) as the religious belief of the people in Mesopotamian civilizations.
7.9 Describe how irrigation, metalsmithing, slavery, the domestication of animals, and inventions such as the wheel, the sail, and the plow contributed to the growth of Mesopotamian civilizations.
Egypt: An Ancient River Civilization, c. 3000-1200 BC/BCE
7.12 On a historical map of the Mediterranean region, locate the Mediterranean and Red Seas, the Nile River and Delta, and the areas of ancient Nubia and Egypt. Identify the locations of ancient Upper and Lower Egypt and explain what the terms mean. On a modern map, identify the modern countries of Egypt and Sudan.
7.13 Describe the kinds of evidence that have been used by archeologists and historians to draw conclusions about the social and economic characteristics of Ancient Nubia (the Kingdom of Kush) and their relationship to the social and economic characteristics of Ancient Egypt.
7.14 Describe the role of the pharaoh as god/king, the concept of dynasties, the importance of at least one Egyptian ruler, the relationship of pharaohs to peasants, and the role of slaves in ancient Egypt.
7.17 On a map of the ancient Mediterranean world, locate Greece, Asia Minor, Crete, Phoenicia, the Aegean, and the Red Sea. On a modern map, locate Greece, Crete, Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria.
7.18 Identify the Phoenicians as the successors to the Minoans in dominating maritime trade in the Mediterranean from c. 1000-300 BC/BCE. Describe how the Phoenician writing system was the first alphabet (with 22 symbols for consonants) and the precursor of the first complete alphabet developed by the ancient Greeks (with symbols representing both consonants and vowels).
The Roots of Western Civilization: Ancient Israel, c. 2000 BC/BCE-70 AD/CE
7.19 On a historical map of the Mediterranean, locate Asia Minor, Greece and Mesopotamia, the kingdoms of the Hittites and ancient Israel, and Egypt. On a modern map, locate Egypt, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the area governed by the Palestinian Authority, Syria, and Turkey.
7.20 Identify the ancient Israelites, or Hebrews, trace their migrations from Mesopotamia to the land called Canaan, and explain the role of Abraham and Moses in their history.
7.21 Describe the monotheistic religion of the Israelites.
7.22 Describe the unification of the tribes of Israel under Kings Saul, David, and Solomon, including David's founding of Jerusalem as his capital city in 1000 BC/BCE and the building of the first temple by Solomon.
7.23 Explain the expulsion/dispersion of the Jews to other lands (referred to as the Diaspora) after the destruction of the second temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD/CE, and the renaming of the country by the Romans.
The Roots of Western Civilization: Ancient Greece, C. 800–300 BC/BCE
7.24 On a historical map of the Mediterranean area, locate Greece and trace the extent of its influence to 300 BC/BCE. On a modern map of the Mediterranean area, Europe, England, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, locate England, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, and other countries in the Balkan peninsula, Crete, Egypt, India, the Middle East, Pakistan, and Turkey.
7.25 Explain how the geographical location of ancient Athens and other city-states contributed to their role in maritime trade, their colonies in the Mediterranean, and the expansion of their cultural influence.
7.32 Describe the myths and stories of classical Greece; give examples of Greek gods and goddesses, heroes, and events, and where and how we see their names used today.
7.33 Explain why the city-states of Greece instituted a tradition of athletic competitions and describe the kinds of sports they featured.
7.34 Describe the purposes and functions of development of Greek institutions such as the lyceum, the gymnasium, and the Library of Alexandria, and identify the major accomplishments of the ancient Greeks.
7.38 Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its contribution to the development of democratic principles, including separation of powers, rule of law, representative government, and the notion of civic duty.
7.42 Explain how inner forces (including the rise of autonomous military powers, political corruption, and economic and political instability) and external forces (shrinking trade, attacks, and invasions) led to the disintegration of the Roman Empire.
7.43 Describe the contribution of Roman civilization to law, literature, poetry, architecture, engineering, and technology (e.g., roads, bridges, arenas, baths, aqueducts, central heating, plumbing, and sanitation).
7.44 Explain the spread and influence of the Roman alphabet and the Latin language, the use of Latin as the language of education for more than 1,000 years, and the role of Latin and Greek in scientific and academic vocabulary.