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Skills available for Minnesota eighth-grade science standards

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1 The Nature of Science and Engineering

2 Physical Science

  • 1 Matter

    • 1 Pure substances can be identified by properties which are independent of the sample of the substance and the properties can be explained by a model of matter that is composed of small particles.

      • 8.2.1.1.1 Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance and use physical properties including color, solubility, density, melting point and boiling point to separate mixtures and identify pure substances.

      • 8.2.1.1.2 Use physical properties to distinguish between metals and non-metals.

    • 2 Substances can undergo physical and chemical changes which may change the properties of the substance but do not change the total mass in a closed system.

      • 8.2.1.2.1 Identify evidence of chemical changes, including color change, generation of a gas, solid formation and temperature change.

      • 8.2.1.2.2 Distinguish between chemical and physical changes in matter.

      • 8.2.1.2.3 Use the particle model of matter to explain how mass is conserved during physical and chemical changes in a closed system.

      • 8.2.1.2.4 Recognize that acids are compounds whose properties include a sour taste, characteristic color changes with litmus and other acid/base indicators, and the tendency to react with bases to produce a salt and water.

  • 3 Energy

    • 1 Waves involve the transfer of energy without the transfer of matter.

      • 8.2.3.1.1 Explain how seismic waves transfer energy through the layers of the Earth and across its surface.

3 Earth and Space Science

  • 1 Earth Structure and Processes

    • 1 The movement of tectonic plates results from interactions among the lithosphere, mantle and core.

      • 8.3.1.1.1 Recognize that the Earth is composed of layers, and describe the properties of the layers, including the lithosphere, mantle and core.

      • 8.3.1.1.2 Correlate the distribution of ocean trenches, mid-ocean ridges and mountain ranges to volcanic and seismic activity.

      • 8.3.1.1.3 Recognize that major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, result from the slow movement of tectonic plates.

    • 2 Landforms are the result of the combination of constructive and destructive processes.

      • 8.3.1.2.1 Explain how landforms result from the processes of crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, weathering, erosion and deposition of sediment.

      • 8.3.1.2.2 Explain the role of weathering, erosion and glacial activity in shaping Minnesota's current landscape.

    • 3 Rocks and rock formations indicate evidence of the materials and conditions that produced them.

      • 8.3.1.3.1 Interpret successive layers of sedimentary rocks and their fossils to infer relative ages of rock sequences, past geologic events, changes in environmental conditions, and the appearance and extinction of life forms.

      • 8.3.1.3.2 Classify and identify rocks and minerals using characteristics including, but not limited to, density, hardness and streak for minerals; and texture and composition for rocks.

      • 8.3.1.3.3 Relate rock composition and texture to physical conditions at the time of formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock.

  • 2 Interdependence Within the Earth System

  • 3 The Universe

    • 1 The Earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, seven other planets and their moons, and smaller objects.

      • 8.3.3.1.1 Recognize that the sun is a medium-sized star, one of billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy, and the closest star to Earth.

      • 8.3.3.1.2 Describe how gravity and inertia keep most objects in the solar system in regular and predictable motion.

      • 8.3.3.1.3 Recognize that gravitational force exists between any two objects and describe how the masses of the objects and distance between them affect the force.

      • 8.3.3.1.4 Compare and contrast the sizes, locations, and compositions of the planets and moons in our solar system.

      • 8.3.3.1.5 Use the predictable motions of the Earth around its own axis and around the sun, and of the moon around the Earth, to explain day length, the phases of the moon, and eclipses.

  • 4 Human Interactions with Earth Systems