1 Understand the people, events, and types of government associated with the development of the United States.
a Differentiate among pre-Columbian civilizations (e.g., cliff dwellers, Pueblo people of the desert Southwest, American Indians of the Pacific Northwest, nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the Woodland Peoples east of the Mississippi River) regarding their location, religious practices, political structures, and use of slaves.
b Cite evidence of the earliest explorations of the Western Hemisphere by the Vikings, including locations and time frame of their explorations.
c Identify significant European supporters (e.g., King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella) and explorers (e.g., Cortez, Ponce de Leon, Hernando De Soto) and the settlements they established (e.g., Roanoke, Jamestown, Plymouth).
d Connect the reasons for the establishment of the early colonies to the major individuals and groups responsible for the founding of those settlements (e.g., John Smith, Virginia; Roger Williams, Rhode Island; William Penn, Pennsylvania; Lord Baltimore, Maryland; William Bradford, Plymouth; John Winthrop, Massachusetts).
b Describe the impact of geographic regions on Native American life and the ways in which Native American Nations interacted with one another.
c Locate on maps of North America and South America, land claimed by Spain, France, England, Portugal, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Russia.
d Explain the cultural, ecological, and economic impact of the Columbian Exchange on Europe, the Americas, and West Africa (e.g., widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations including enslaved people, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres).
b Analyze the relationship between early European settlers in America and the Native Americans they encountered in terms of conflict, cultural exchanges, property rights, and adoption of democratic ideas.
5 Understand the contributions of the various cultures represented in pre-Columbian through colonial America.
a Compare major Native American cultures in respect to geographic regions (e.g., Southeast, Northeast, Southwest, Pacific Northwest, and Plains), natural resources, government, economy, and religion.
b Explain the effect of colonization by Europeans on both European and Native American cultures.
c Draw conclusions about how cultures changed through cultural diffusion, invention, and innovation (e.g., navigational tools such as astrolabe and sextant, farming techniques, new agricultural products, holidays, religious beliefs and practices, government, weaponry, etc.).